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    Unofficial Markscheme??
    1a) Parts of the lung.
    A: Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
    1b)How can a lung be described as a tree? A:Branches out smaller and smaller
    1c)How do the lungs move when a person breathes in?
    A: Intercostal & diaphram contact, pressure lower
    1d)Why is smoking banned in public buildings?
    A: Enclosed space, lots of people, emphysema, cancer, CO, tar
    1e)Why are children harmed more by smoke?
    A: More fragile, less developed lungs easily damaged

    2a) Table about visking tubing.
    A: Example: No No
    Starch+Maltase: No No
    Starch+Glucose: No Yes
    Starch+boiled amylase:No No
    2b) How does the volume change?
    A:Increases: osmosis
    2c)Test for glucose?
    A: Benedicts solution dark to brick red
    d)How would you use this equipment for bile/lipids?
    A: Place in visking tube Test water for glycerol/fatty acids

    a) Genetic tree questions.
    3b) Define ‘mutation’.
    A:Change in the genetic code
    3c)Example of good mutation.
    A : Antibiotic resistance, giraffe long neck etc
    3d) How would the frequency of alleles change if medical care was not avaliable?
    A: Would decrease; people with the fatal allele would die before they can reproduce without medical help, and wouldnt pass on allele

    4a) Does the father determine gender?
    A: Yes, father has XY, mother has XX Y decides whether child is boy or girl
    4b)Man A vs B.
    A: More sperm, healthier sperm
    4c)Smokers and non smokers graph.
    A: 45% of 55m=24750000
    4d)Why are smokers less fertile, using the graph?
    A: Have less moving sperm, more mutated sperm

    5a) Balanced photosynthesis equation.
    A: 6H20 + 6CO2 > C6H12O6 +6O2
    5b)Why are the leaves darker?
    A: More chlorophyll so they can absorb more sunlight
    5c)Why are the leaves thinner?
    A: So light can penetrate to other layers of leaves
    5d&e)Morning vs night; effect on rate of photosynthesis.
    A: Morning = colder, less light, slower
    A: Opposite for afternoon
    5f) Describe a test to compare the rate of photosynthesis for 2 plants.
    A: Measure amount of O2 produced by 2 different types of pondweed with gas syringe

    6a) What is used?
    A: Quadrat
    6b) Frequency of plants.
    A: 8,22%
    6c) Number of squares plants are in.
    A: 4,11%
    6d) How would you calculate the average for a very large field?
    A: Use lots of quadrats
    Find average of plantains
    Multiply by area of field

    7a) Young plants in mineral solutions: describe pattern in both plants.
    A: In all minerals solution the plant grew to 163mm Plants without nitrate grew to 37-38mm and began to shrink
    7b)Why was air bubbled through?
    A: More oxygen, more respiration respiration, more energy for active transport
    7c)Why was it covered with cardboard?
    A: Mimic underground conditions
    7d) Why was the solution sterile?
    A: So no microorganisms outcompeted the plants

    8a) Draw a graph generation/cloning.
    8b)Describe pattern.
    A: More older people supported cloning
    8c)Using a named example, explain cloning.
    A: Dolly the sheep, mature udder cell into enucleated cell, implanted into uterus of another sheep

    9a) Label motor neurone.
    A: nucleus, axon
    9b)Describe role in the body.
    A: Connects relay neurone to muscle/effector
    9c) 3 Differences in hormonal and nervous?
    A: Slower/faster
    Small area/big area

    10) Fill in blanks: Chloroplasts, cellulose, starch, glycogen, consumer, chromosome, plasmid, photosynthesis, yoghurt, pneumonia

    11a) How do fungi digest logs?
    A: Saprotrophic nutrition: secrete enzymes and absorb
    11b) Design experiment to find best fungicide. (CORMS)
    A: Take 50 logs
    Same weight, surface area, species
    Split into 5 groups
    Treat 4 groups with different fungicides, leave 10 as a control
    Leave all logs on forest floor: same conditions Wash to remove fungi
    Weigh and average groups to find loss in mass from each fungicide
    Compare results


    Could you add how many marks was each question worth

    Legend, thanks for this
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