GCSE AQA B1, BIOLOGY UNIT 1 UNOFFICIAL MARK SCHEME, 16th May 2017 Watch

mahmed69
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1a) Biomass: work out the amount of biomass transferred to the primary consumer from the producer(beanplant i think)

7,000 - 2,000 = 5,000 [2 marks]

1b) something about the hawk in the food chain, i believe it was tick the correct box;
it's 'Hawk produces faeces' [1 mark]

1c) fill in gaps: plants increase their biomass by the proess of photosynthesis
by this process they make a carbohydrate called glucose[2 marks]


2a) explain Darwin's theory of evolution using natural selection. [4 marks]
variation exists among organisms in a species, and this is caused by mutation. this gave them some features which suited their environment and gave them the advantage in competing against others. These features allowed them to survive, and reproduce to pass on the genes for these characteristics to their offspring. Thus the offspring expressed these features also.

2b) darwin wrote a book about his findings. some cartoonists made a magazine (or something) and drew darwin as a monkey. Suggest one reason why they did this. [1 mark]

so basically i wrote that they did it cuz of the theory that we evolved from monkeys. BUT apparently it's because they were mocking him as his theory contradicted the Theory that God made everything

2c) give two reasons why people only gradually accepted darwins theory. [2 marks]


there are 3 textbook ans for this:
1. theory that god made everything
2. lack of evidence to back him up
3. mechanism of inheritance and genes not known or recognised.


3ai) Name two ways in which ions are lost from the body. name the organ involved: [4 marks]

way: urine organ: kidney
way: sweat organ: skin

3aii) how do we replenish the body's ion content? [1 mark]
eating and drinking

3b) 6 marker on the CNS(was soooo gassed to see this )

describe a simple reflex response
you should include the receptor and what it detects
you should explain how this brings about a response [6 marks]

can be anything really, so what i wrote was: Heat receptors in the finger detect warmth change in the surroundings. For example someone touches a hot pan. The heat receptor sends an electrical impulse to the sensory neurone and this caries the impulse to the synapse between the sensory and relay neurone in the CNS. At this point, the impulse coverts into a chemical neurotransmitter which diffuses across the gap, and attaches onto the relay neurone. it then converts back to electical and continues through the relay. it then encounters another synapse between relay and motor, and diffuses again. the motor neurone then causes the effector, in this case a muscle in the hand to contract and bring the hand away, to bring about a movement. this saves the person from being burnt.



4) describe how living plants are involved in the carbon cycle [4 marks]
plants photosynthesise and so take in CO2, they use the carbon to make carbohydrates, fats and proteins to build up tissues. the plants also respire, and as a result release CO2 into the atmosphere

5a) people are vaccinated with TB to become immune. what is the difference between the actual TB bacteria and the bacteria in the vaccine? [1 mark]
vaccine bacteria = dead or inactive

5b) we were given data. vaccinated ppl produced antibodies faster and more of them. Suggest 1 reason why. [2 marks]
memory cells(WBC's) are able to remember the TBs antigens, and keep a copy of the antibody. The next time it invaded they produced it quicker

5c) Data given, why does resistant bacteria population grow as antibiotics are used? [3 marks]
1% resistant already(in data). this is able to survive and divide/reproduce and so passes on genes to offspring bacteria. these now are resistant against the antibiotic. continued survival and divisions means greater percentage of bacteria population develop resistance.

5d) why should doctors not prescribe antibiotics to treat people with sore throats? [2 marks]
antibiotics don't fight sore throats, as they're most commonly viruses. its also a mild condition that can heal without antibiotics. if overused then will cause resistance.


6) i believe this whole question was on the acacia plant
a) explain how the roots system helps the acacia live in hot and dry conditions. [3 marks]
deep extensive roots absorb as much moisture as possible from deep ground,
roots also near the surface of the ground(directly underneath surface in diagram),helps it take in water from rainfall quickly, as rainfall is not consistent, all this water absorption helps it not to dry out, and to cool itself by transpiration when hot.

6b) leaves surface area, explain how the leaf of the acacia helps the acacia. [2 marks]
reduced surface area means less water loss from leaves thus it doesnt dry out.

6c) acacia has long thorns. how does this benefit it? [1 marks]
it's a form of protection and warns off predators to increase survival

7a) suggest one reason why animals store fat in their body. [1 mark]
insulation in some animals in cold environments/a source of stored energy

7b) camels live hot environment, Llamas live in cold environments. Explain why the camel and Llama store the fat differently. [2 marks]
Llama stores it as layer under skin for insulation as it lives in cold environment. Camel doesn't need insulation as it lives in hot conditions, so instead stores it in hump for stored source of energy

8a) explain one advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction. [1 mark]
leads to variation in offspring, so less susceptible to diseases.

8b) adult cell cloning. [4 marks]
cell nucleus taken from person A(with disease) and remainder of cell discarded. Egg Cell 'frame' taken from non diseased female(B) and the nucleus discarded. Nucleus from A put into egg Cell 'frame' from B, fertilised by sperm from male person C. Cell divides to form embryo, and then implanted into mother.

8c) Explain why the person born will NOT have mitochondrial disease. [2 marks]
the mitochondria are found in cytoplasm, and the cytoplasm in embryo is taken from the non-mitochondrial affected female, so the cells in embryo are do not contain affected mitochondria(anything along the lines of this)

8d) suggest an ethical problem with this form of reproduction [1 mark]
many issues: 1. designer babies, 2. interfere with nature, 3. discrimination against disabled beings. etc etc

9a) what conclusions can you make from the results of the effects of light AND gravity on the growth of the shoots [3 marks]
the shoots grew against gravit and so are negatively geotropic, the absense of light meant that the plants grew straight upwards in search of light(natural) and cuz of even distribution of auxin it grew evenly. the absence of light didnt have an effect, as they still grew

9b) which has effect the roots: moisture or gravity? use fig 7 [2 marks]
moisture, roots grew upward towards the moist cotton wool when the water was emptied from underneath them, and grew against gravity(upwards) thus showing moisture affects them more

9c) lamp on right side of box. plant grow towards it. Explain why [2 marks]
auxin went to the side without lamp(shaded side) and so caused elongation in that side. This elongation caused it to bend towards the light.

9d) suggest the advantage to the plant of having this response(growth towards light) [2 marks]
gets more light for photosynthesis.





FINAL
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mahmed69
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(Original post by mahmed69)
1a) Biomass: work out the amount of biomass transferred to the primary consumer from the producer(beanplant i think)

7,000 - 2,000 = 5,000 [2 marks]

1b) something about the hawk in the food chain, i believe it was tick the correct box;
it's 'Hawk produces faeces' [1 mark]

1c) fill in gaps: plants increase their biomass by the proess of photosynthesis
by this process they make a carbohydrate called glucose[2 marks]


2a) explain Darwin's theory of evolution using natural selection. [4 marks]
variation exists among organisms in a species, and this is caused by mutation. this gave them some features which suited their environment and gave them the advantage in competing against others. These features allowed them to survive, and reproduce to pass on the genes for these characteristics to their offspring. Thus the offspring expressed these features also.

2b) darwin wrote a book about his findings. some cartoonists made a magazine (or something) and drew darwin as a monkey. Suggest one reason why they did this. [1 mark]

so basically i wrote that they did it cuz of the theory that we evolved from monkeys. BUT apparently it's because they were mocking him as his theory contradicted the Theory that God made everything

2c) give two reasons why people only gradually accepted darwins theory. [2 marks]


there are 3 textbook ans for this:
1. theory that god made everything
2. lack of evidence to back him up
3. mechanism of inheritance and genes not known or recognised.


3ai) Name two ways in which ions are lost from the body. name the organ involved: [4 marks]

way: urine organ: kidney
way: sweat organ: skin

3aii) how do we replenish the body's ion content? [1 mark]
eating and drinking

3b) 6 marker on the CNS(was soooo gassed to see this )

describe a simple reflex response
you should include the receptor and what it detects
you should explain how this brings about a response [6 marks]

can be anything really, so what i wrote was: Heat receptors in the finger detect warmth change in the surroundings. For example someone touches a hot pan. The heat receptor sends an electrical impulse to the sensory neurone and this caries the impulse to the synapse between the sensory and relay neurone in the CNS. At this point, the impulse coverts into a chemical neurotransmitter which diffuses across the gap, and attaches onto the relay neurone. it then converts back to electical and continues through the relay. it then encounters another synapse between relay and motor, and diffuses again. the motor neurone then causes the effector, in this case a muscle in the hand to contract and bring the hand away, to bring about a movement. this saves the person from being burnt.



4) describe how living plants are involved in the carbon cycle [4 marks]
plants photosynthesise and so take in CO2, they use the carbon to make carbohydrates, fats and proteins to build up tissues. the plants also respire, and as a result release CO2 into the atmosphere

5a) people are vaccinated with TB to become immune. what is the difference between the actual TB bacteria and the bacteria in the vaccine? [1 mark]
vaccine bacteria = dead or inactive

5b) we were given data. vaccinated ppl produced antibodies faster and more of them. Suggest 1 reason why. [2 marks]
memory cells(WBC's) are able to remember the TBs antigens, and keep a copy of the antibody. The next time it invaded they produced it quicker

5c) Data given, why does resistant bacteria population grow as antibiotics are used? [3 marks]
1% resistant already(in data). this is able to survive and divide/reproduce and so passes on genes to offspring bacteria. these now are resistant against the antibiotic. continued survival and divisions means greater percentage of bacteria population develop resistance.

5d) why should doctors not prescribe antibiotics to treat people with sore throats? [2 marks]
antibiotics don't fight sore throats, as they're most commonly viruses. its also a mild condition that can heal without antibiotics. if overused then will cause resistance.


6) i believe this whole question was on the acacia plant
a) explain how the roots system helps the acacia live in hot and dry conditions. [3 marks]
deep extensive roots absorb as much moisture as possible from deep ground,
roots also near the surface of the ground(directly underneath surface in diagram),helps it take in water from rainfall quickly, as rainfall is not consistent, all this water absorption helps it not to dry out, and to cool itself by transpiration when hot.

6b) leaves surface area, explain how the leaf of the acacia helps the acacia. [2 marks]
reduced surface area means less water loss from leaves thus it doesnt dry out.

6c) acacia has long thorns. how does this benefit it? [1 marks]
it's a form of protection and warns off predators to increase survival

7a) suggest one reason why animals store fat in their body. [1 mark]
insulation in some animals in cold environments/a source of stored energy

7b) camels live hot environment, Llamas live in cold environments. Explain why the camel and Llama store the fat differently. [2 marks]
Llama stores it as layer under skin for insulation as it lives in cold environment. Camel doesn't need insulation as it lives in hot conditions, so instead stores it in hump for stored source of energy

8a) explain one advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction. [1 mark]
leads to variation in offspring, so less susceptible to diseases.

8b) adult cell cloning. [4 marks]
cell nucleus taken from person A(with disease) and remainder of cell discarded. Egg Cell 'frame' taken from non diseased female(B) and the nucleus discarded. Nucleus from A put into egg Cell 'frame' from B, fertilised by sperm from male person C. Cell divides to form embryo, and then implanted into mother.

8c) Explain why the person born will NOT have mitochondrial disease. [2 marks]
the mitochondria are found in cytoplasm, and the cytoplasm in embryo is taken from the non-mitochondrial affected female, so the cells in embryo are do not contain affected mitochondria(anything along the lines of this)

8d) suggest an ethical problem with this form of reproduction [1 mark]
many issues: 1. designer babies, 2. interfere with nature, 3. discrimination against disabled beings. etc etc

9a) what conclusions can you make from the results of the effects of light AND gravity on the growth of the shoots [3 marks]
the shoots grew against gravit and so are negatively geotropic, the absense of light meant that the plants grew straight upwards in search of light(natural) and cuz of even distribution of auxin it grew evenly. the absence of light didnt have an effect, as they still grew

9b) which has effect the roots: moisture or gravity? use fig 7 [2 marks]
moisture, roots grew upward towards the moist cotton wool when the water was emptied from underneath them, and grew against gravity(upwards) thus showing moisture affects them more

9c) lamp on right side of box. plant grow towards it. Explain why [2 marks]
auxin went to the side without lamp(shaded side) and so caused elongation in that side. This elongation caused it to bend towards the light.

9d) suggest the advantage to the plant of having this response(growth towards light) [2 marks]
gets more light for photosynthesis.





FINAL
got taken down on the other thread for some stupid reason. Enjoy!
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Sad2155
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The question on adult cell cloning; i believe it should also include the fact that an electric shock is given to stimulate the division of the embryo
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