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    (Original post by z_o_e)
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    The witches are the main tool for Shakespeare to present the supernatural theme throughout the play.
    Notice how they are the first characters to be in the play at the beginning, it shows that they are significant and Shakespeare wanted them to be important from the very beginning.

    'fair is foul and foul is fair'
    The witches talk in rhymes, they are strange and supernatural and their language reflects that. It builds fear in a contemporary audience who are extremely afraid of the supernatural at the time and would often accuse women of being witches.
    It sets up the theme of reality in the play, and by doing this, makes the witches appear omniscient right from the get go. This idea of them being all knowing is further backed up by the predictions that they make 'Macbeth shalt to be kind hereafter'.
    Due to their predictions, you could also say they are the driving force for Macbeth's actions throughout the play. Of course, his ambition is an important factor in driving him to commit regicide, but without the witches planting the ideas in his head about him becoming King, he may never have worked so hard and gone to such evil lengths to achieve this goal. Equally, they could've had complete control over him from the beginning and essentially made him commit those crimes through some supernatural power (the dagger scene could be interpreted as supernatural forces luring macbeth to duncan's bed)

    The descriptions of weather 'in thunder lighting or in rain' establish the setting, however are also pathetic fallacy - they reflect the mood and atmosphere Shakespeare intended the witches to be assosciated with - darkness, extreme conditions and torrential rainfall all connote misery and foreboading, and help to build fear for the audience, the witches presence triggering feelings of unease and discomfort.

    Another thing to think about with the Witches is other character's reactions to them. Shakespeare uses the Witches for characterisation of Macbeth as well as for Banquo, giving subtle hints towards the direction of the play. In the scene where they are given the prophecies, Banquo's reaction seems the more rational and realistic of the two, with him being so shocked and saying 'What can the devil speak true?' He uses reference to religion and assosciates the Witches (and the supernatural) with the devil and is extremely suspicious of them. Contrastingly, Shakespeare presents Macbeth as more intrigued and curious as to what they said, with him saying 'Would they had stayed' wishing that they had remained longer and wanting to know more. The distinct contrast between these two suggests how the play will continue, with Banquo dismissing the unusual, and Macbeth being pulled towards it.
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    In many of Shakespeare’s plays there exists relationships between characters; these relationships in many cases influence the direction in which the play goes. For example, in the “The Merchant Of Venice” the elopement of Lorenzo and Jessica is what triggers Shylock’s rage and blind desire for revenge, which sets the stage and the necessary atmosphere that is required for the climax in the court scene. Likewise in Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” the everlasting relationship between Macbeth and the three witches is the foundation of the entire plot. When Macbeth meets the witches he views them as honest and believes on them quickly. The witches having established contact with the protagonist, indirectly affect and transform his beloved wife. Towards his demise Macbeth finally realizes how the witches have heinously betrayed him.

    From the very start of the play the witches establish how important Macbeth is to their evil scheme: “There to meet with Macbeth”. It is from this moment that a permanent link is established between Macbeth and the witches. “A drum, a drum, Macbeth doth come”. The witches use extraordinary equivocatory language when speaking: “hail to thee Thane Glamis/ hail to thee thane of Cawdor/ All hail Macbeth that shalt be king hereafter”. Macbeth is confused, he is the thane of Glamis but not of Cawdor, and he is not the king. When Macbeth receives news of his promotion he immediately believes in the witches’ prophecies: “The greatest is behind-Thanks for your pains”.

    Macbeth is also very fond of the witches as they awaken in him his dormant vaulting ambition to be king. He cannot forget the meeting that he had with them: “My thought, whose murder is yet but fantastical, shakes so my very single state of man that function is smothered in surmise, and is but what is not”. Macbeth very quickly believes whole heartily without any shred of proof , it is unimaginable how the witches could manipulate one who is supposed to be “Valliant”. Macbeth trusts in the witches to an extent that he stars to suspect people who are close to him, even his brother in arms: “We would spend it in some words upon that business, if you would grant the time”. It is quite clear that Macbeth has become increasingly paranoid due to his evolving relationship with the three weird sisters.

    Throughout the whole play the witches are in Macbeth’s mind corrupting him even further. Lady Macbeth is no exception: “Come you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to the toe top full direst cruelty.”. Notice how Lady Macbeth uses the word crown, this shows that the witches, in form of spirits, have filled lady Macbeth with ambition more vaulting than Macbeth’s one. Under the influence the witches she is driven to extreme measures: “Come thick night and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of Hell”. One would not have imagined that the witches’ power would have extended to influence humans to bow to the devil indirectly.

    The witches may also appear in many different forms, this has already been witnessed by the audience: “I come, Graymalkin”/ “Paddock calls”. When Duncan arrives at Macbeth’s castle the witches are present in a way. They are present in Lady Macbeth’s fake attitude towards the King: “Your majesty loads our house: for those of old, and the late dignities heap’d up to them, we rest your hermits.”. It is noticeable that Lady Macbeth speaks somewhat like the witches in rhyme this shows the extent of the power of the three weird sisters and how solid their relationship is with the Macbeths.

    The power of the witches does not cease to guide Macbeth further along the path of hell:“Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.”. A deadly illusion is created before Macbeth in order to make sure that he does not sway from his hell-bound vaulting ambition to become king. This is the most solid proof yet that the relationship between Macbeth and the witches is the triggers the most important events in the play: the murder of the gracious king Duncan.

    Having fully fulfilled the prophecy of the witches, the relationship between Macbeth and these ministers of evil continues to grow evermore leading Macbeth even closer to his demise: “How now, you secret, black and midnight hags?”. Notice the normal, familiar, even demanding tone that Macbeth uses with the witches this emphasizes how close Macbeth and the witches are, or so does Macbeth think. The witches corrupt Macbeth even further by showing him three apparitions: “Come high or low: thyself and office deftly show”.

    The apparitions were the cornerstone of the witches’ evil scheme; they further trick and blind Macbeth from the truth making him think that he is invincible, and hence deceiving him: “none of woman born shall harm Macbeth”/ “Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him”. It is here where we see the true face of the relationship between the witches and Macbeth as it really is: a deceptive, manipulating and equivocating one. This is never seen by Macbeth himself, which influences the story even more.

    To show the audience how the relationship between Macbeth and the witches is important to the plot of the play he breaks down their relationship at the climax of the play: “I looked toward Birnam, and anon methought the wood began to move”. The first brutal betrayal by the witches came at a time when Macbeth was already in turmoil due to the death of his partner in greatness. It is at this moment when an epiphany strikes Macbeth and shows him the true nature of the witches in which he placed so much of his trust: “I pull in resolution, and begin to doubt the equivocation of the fiend that lies like truth”.

    Even at when he is so near to his moment of death Macbeth still carries little belief of what the witches had previously told him: “Thou wast born of woman; but swords I smile at, weapons laugh to scorn brandished by man that’s of woman born”. This proves how intact the relationship between Macbeth and the weird sisters was; even after discovering that they betrayed him Macbeth still clings to the one prophecy that he hopes to be true. This fool’s hope is ripped away by Macduff: “Macduff was from his mother’s womb untimely ripped”. The solid, seemingly unbreakable relationship between Macbeth and the witches has finally broken down completely proving that it was futile from the start.

    This play is no exception to the fact that relationships are important and affect the story of Shakespeare’s plays. If it was not for the doomed relationship between the witches and Macbeth the play might not have been a tragedy at all. This bond between Macbeth and these minsters of evil serves as the cornerstone of the entire play and a crucial catalyst to the plot. It could be said that the relationship was forged before the fatal meeting and started to decide the fate of the plot and of Macbeth.
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    (Original post by Boris Didov)
    In many of Shakespeare’s plays there exists relationships between characters; these relationships in many cases influence the direction in which the play goes. For example, in the “The Merchant Of Venice” the elopement of Lorenzo and Jessica is what triggers Shylock’s rage and blind desire for revenge, which sets the stage and the necessary atmosphere that is required for the climax in the court scene. Likewise in Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” the everlasting relationship between Macbeth and the three witches is the foundation of the entire plot. When Macbeth meets the witches he views them as honest and believes on them quickly. The witches having established contact with the protagonist, indirectly affect and transform his beloved wife. Towards his demise Macbeth finally realizes how the witches have heinously betrayed him.

    From the very start of the play the witches establish how important Macbeth is to their evil scheme: “There to meet with Macbeth”. It is from this moment that a permanent link is established between Macbeth and the witches. “A drum, a drum, Macbeth doth come”. The witches use extraordinary equivocatory language when speaking: “hail to thee Thane Glamis/ hail to thee thane of Cawdor/ All hail Macbeth that shalt be king hereafter”. Macbeth is confused, he is the thane of Glamis but not of Cawdor, and he is not the king. When Macbeth receives news of his promotion he immediately believes in the witches’ prophecies: “The greatest is behind-Thanks for your pains”.

    Macbeth is also very fond of the witches as they awaken in him his dormant vaulting ambition to be king. He cannot forget the meeting that he had with them: “My thought, whose murder is yet but fantastical, shakes so my very single state of man that function is smothered in surmise, and is but what is not”. Macbeth very quickly believes whole heartily without any shred of proof , it is unimaginable how the witches could manipulate one who is supposed to be “Valliant”. Macbeth trusts in the witches to an extent that he stars to suspect people who are close to him, even his brother in arms: “We would spend it in some words upon that business, if you would grant the time”. It is quite clear that Macbeth has become increasingly paranoid due to his evolving relationship with the three weird sisters.

    Throughout the whole play the witches are in Macbeth’s mind corrupting him even further. Lady Macbeth is no exception: “Come you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to the toe top full direst cruelty.”. Notice how Lady Macbeth uses the word crown, this shows that the witches, in form of spirits, have filled lady Macbeth with ambition more vaulting than Macbeth’s one. Under the influence the witches she is driven to extreme measures: “Come thick night and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of Hell”. One would not have imagined that the witches’ power would have extended to influence humans to bow to the devil indirectly.

    The witches may also appear in many different forms, this has already been witnessed by the audience: “I come, Graymalkin”/ “Paddock calls”. When Duncan arrives at Macbeth’s castle the witches are present in a way. They are present in Lady Macbeth’s fake attitude towards the King: “Your majesty loads our house: for those of old, and the late dignities heap’d up to them, we rest your hermits.”. It is noticeable that Lady Macbeth speaks somewhat like the witches in rhyme this shows the extent of the power of the three weird sisters and how solid their relationship is with the Macbeths.

    The power of the witches does not cease to guide Macbeth further along the path of hell:“Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.”. A deadly illusion is created before Macbeth in order to make sure that he does not sway from his hell-bound vaulting ambition to become king. This is the most solid proof yet that the relationship between Macbeth and the witches is the triggers the most important events in the play: the murder of the gracious king Duncan.

    Having fully fulfilled the prophecy of the witches, the relationship between Macbeth and these ministers of evil continues to grow evermore leading Macbeth even closer to his demise: “How now, you secret, black and midnight hags?”. Notice the normal, familiar, even demanding tone that Macbeth uses with the witches this emphasizes how close Macbeth and the witches are, or so does Macbeth think. The witches corrupt Macbeth even further by showing him three apparitions: “Come high or low: thyself and office deftly show”.

    The apparitions were the cornerstone of the witches’ evil scheme; they further trick and blind Macbeth from the truth making him think that he is invincible, and hence deceiving him: “none of woman born shall harm Macbeth”/ “Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him”. It is here where we see the true face of the relationship between the witches and Macbeth as it really is: a deceptive, manipulating and equivocating one. This is never seen by Macbeth himself, which influences the story even more.

    To show the audience how the relationship between Macbeth and the witches is important to the plot of the play he breaks down their relationship at the climax of the play: “I looked toward Birnam, and anon methought the wood began to move”. The first brutal betrayal by the witches came at a time when Macbeth was already in turmoil due to the death of his partner in greatness. It is at this moment when an epiphany strikes Macbeth and shows him the true nature of the witches in which he placed so much of his trust: “I pull in resolution, and begin to doubt the equivocation of the fiend that lies like truth”.

    Even at when he is so near to his moment of death Macbeth still carries little belief of what the witches had previously told him: “Thou wast born of woman; but swords I smile at, weapons laugh to scorn brandished by man that’s of woman born”. This proves how intact the relationship between Macbeth and the weird sisters was; even after discovering that they betrayed him Macbeth still clings to the one prophecy that he hopes to be true. This fool’s hope is ripped away by Macduff: “Macduff was from his mother’s womb untimely ripped”. The solid, seemingly unbreakable relationship between Macbeth and the witches has finally broken down completely proving that it was futile from the start.

    This play is no exception to the fact that relationships are important and affect the story of Shakespeare’s plays. If it was not for the doomed relationship between the witches and Macbeth the play might not have been a tragedy at all. This bond between Macbeth and these minsters of evil serves as the cornerstone of the entire play and a crucial catalyst to the plot. It could be said that the relationship was forged before the fatal meeting and started to decide the fate of the plot and of Macbeth.
    wow that's really detailed analysis

    do u have any quotes that show Macbeth as a brave warrior or that present his ambition?
    Could plz giv analysis as well
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    (Original post by rafakl)
    wow that's really detailed analysis

    do u have any quotes that show Macbeth as a brave warrior or that present his ambition?
    Could plz giv analysis as well
    That's copied and pasted lol.


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    (Original post by z_o_e)
    That's copied and pasted lol.


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    oh could you still find me some analysis for those quotes plz
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    (Original post by rafakl)
    wow that's really detailed analysis

    do u have any quotes that show Macbeth as a brave warrior or that present his ambition?
    Could plz giv analysis as well
    Name:  IMG_1348.jpg
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Size:  531.4 KBThat's an essay plan for ambition our teacher gave us
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    (Original post by cmsn)
    Name:  IMG_1348.jpg
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Size:  531.4 KBThat's an essay plan for ambition our teacher gave us
    Thank you so much

    What exam board are you doing?


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    (Original post by rafakl)
    wow that's really detailed analysis

    do u have any quotes that show Macbeth as a brave warrior or that present his ambition?
    Could plz giv analysis as well

    In the beginning of the play, an injured captain reports on the battle against Macdonald, a rebel, in which Macbeth played a crucial role. He is presented as a hero, and someone to look up to, throughout Act 1 Scene 2. At one point, the battle looked as though it would turn in Macdonald’s favour, but it was left to the brave warrior Macbeth, "disdaining Fortune," to reverse this situation. Macbeth succeeds.

    The introduction of Macbeth as a warrior hero is crucial to the play, for tragedy depends on our witnessing the downfall of an already great man. Phrases such as "Valour's minion" (the servant of Courage) and "Bellona's bridegroom" (the husband of War) exemplify Macbeth's superheroism. His strength is underscored by the captain's graphic account of Macbeth's actions on the battlefield. Macbeth did not simply kill Macdonald; he "unseam'd him from the nave to the chops, / And fix'd his head upon our battlements" (22-23) — a reference that foreshadows Macbeth's death at the end of the play, while painting an illustrious, yet excessively violent picture of Macbeth’s character.

    Macbeth's reputation on the battlefield is further enhanced by the similes of the Captain's second report, in which Macbeth and his fellow-captain, Banquo, are compared to "eagles" and "lions" unafraid of the timid Norwegians, who themselves are likened to "sparrows" or "a hare." Symbolically, the lion appears on the royal coat of arms of the kings of Scotland. Macbeth's and Banquo's fighting is compared to the action of artillery pieces (even though, historically, this battle would have been a sword fight, which emphasises the unprecedented superiority of Macbeth’s ability and character). Macbeth is credited with nothing less than recreating "Golgotha," the scene of Christ's crucifixion, which also foreshadows the tragic happenings of the play later on.

    After Macbeth receives word of his new title, Thane of Cawdor, he cannot reconcile the fact of the truth of the first prophecy with his intense and unnatural fear, or what he calls his "horrible imaginings." He admits to being so shaken by the news that he feels that his reason has been taken over by his imagination. The line "Nothing is, but what is not" is ambiguous. The expression could indicate confusion between the world we think of as real and the world of dreams, a neat summary of a confused mind. But how confused is Macbeth at this point? If he is capable of arguing that the prophecies are neither evil nor good, he is capable of accepting that nothing that exists has any existence or meaning. This interpretation could open Macbeth to dangerous and unjustifiable deeds. If he can make himself believe that "Nothing is, but what is not," then Macbeth's respect for order, for hierarchy, for the King, is also nullified. He can, literally, get away with murder. These are the beginnings of Macbeth’s ambition taking control of his actions.

    At the end of Act 1 Scene 5, Macbeth commands: “Stars hide your fire, let light not see my black and deep desires.” His ambition is unquestionably portrayed in this quote, as he admits to himself that he yearns for that which is yet impossible, and has desires to achieve it. Lady Macbeth notices: “What thou wouldst highly, that wouldst thou holily, wouldst not play false, and yet wouldst wrongly win”, showing that he is indeed full of ambition. The question remaining is whether this ambition is enough to persuade him to “catch the nearest way”.

    In Act 1 Scene 7, the imagery of Macbeth's soliloquy reveals the intentions he would like to achieve ("assassination," "success", but its construction shows the workings of a mind still very much in confusion. There is an insistent repetition of individual words — if, were, done, be, but, and here — each repeated two or three times within the first few lines. Within the fluid construction of this soliloquy, words and sounds constantly attract and suggest each other, giving the impression of a train of thought. All this begs the question of whether Macbeth, able to rationalize and express his thoughts, is thereby revealed as an intelligent, poetic soul. If that's the case, he appears more human, less capable of sinning, and, is therefore more capable of winning their sympathy.

    It is the thought of something after death that puzzles Macbeth. Macbeth wonders whether the act of murder itself must, by necessity, carry consequences in "the life to come" or whether judgment will await him in this life. Macbeth is simultaneously aware of the duplicity and imbalance of the proposed murder (he is Duncan's relative, subject, and host, yet he is to be his killer) and of the equality and balance of earthly and heavenly law: "this even-handed Justice / Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice / To our own lips" (11-12).

    Of further concern to Macbeth is the disparity between his own reputation and the world's perception of Duncan as a good and virtuous king. The final section of the speech contains an apocalyptic vision in which he imagines Duncan's virtue and pity proclaimed as if by angels and cherubim from a storm-filled sky. This doom-laden vision, whose imagery (for example, "trumpet-tongued" reflects that of the biblical Day of Judgment, gives way in turn to a nagging self-doubt, as he sees himself as killing someone dear to God, and so going against His will. Whereas he pictures the angels and cherubim "horsed upon the sightless couriers of the air," Macbeth admits that he himself has "no spur / to prick the sides of my intent but only / Vaulting ambition which o'erleaps itself / And falls on the other [side]" (25-28).

    Lady Macbeth must immediately detect Macbeth's self-doubt. When Macbeth admits to her that his golden reputation might lose its "gloss," she sets out to strengthen his resolve by mocking his perceived weakness. Her questions drive further the wedge between daring and doing, between courage and action, between desire and fulfillment. To these, she adds a distinction between masculinity and femininity: In contrast to her own self-proclaimed manliness, she pours scorn upon her husband's lack of courage. She tells him he is "green," "a coward," and that he resembles the proverbial "poor cat" who wanted the fish but would not get its paws wet. Finally, and most damningly, she tells him that her own lack of pity would extend to murdering her own child as it suckled at her breast. With this one terrifying example, she confirms that "the milk of human kindness" is absent in her.

    The next paragraph commences with a shift in tone — no less pragmatic but even more ruthlessly efficient — as Lady Macbeth switches her attention to the details of the murder itself. Her plan to drug the guards with alcohol is couched in metaphorical language derived from the ancient science of alchemy. The words "receipt," "fume," and "limbeck" specifically refer to this process, whose purpose was to turn base metal (such as lead) into gold. It is heavily ironic that, in the Macbeths' experiment, that which is gold — the king himself — will become base and doubly ironic that Macbeth's golden reputation will be reduced to worthlessness.

    Macbeth has been convinced. In words that uncannily recall his wife's, he now puts on the mantle of murderer: the monosyllabic "False face must hide what the false heart doth know" has a certainty to it that completely overturns his earlier vacillation.

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    (Original post by Boris Didov)
    In the beginning of the play, an injured captain reports on the battle against Macdonald, a rebel, in which Macbeth played a crucial role. He is presented as a hero, and someone to look up to, throughout Act 1 Scene 2. At one point, the battle looked as though it would turn in Macdonald’s favour, but it was left to the brave warrior Macbeth, "disdaining Fortune," to reverse this situation. Macbeth succeeds.

    The introduction of Macbeth as a warrior hero is crucial to the play, for tragedy depends on our witnessing the downfall of an already great man. Phrases such as "Valour's minion" (the servant of Courage) and "Bellona's bridegroom" (the husband of War) exemplify Macbeth's superheroism. His strength is underscored by the captain's graphic account of Macbeth's actions on the battlefield. Macbeth did not simply kill Macdonald; he "unseam'd him from the nave to the chops, / And fix'd his head upon our battlements" (22-23) — a reference that foreshadows Macbeth's death at the end of the play, while painting an illustrious, yet excessively violent picture of Macbeth’s character.

    Macbeth's reputation on the battlefield is further enhanced by the similes of the Captain's second report, in which Macbeth and his fellow-captain, Banquo, are compared to "eagles" and "lions" unafraid of the timid Norwegians, who themselves are likened to "sparrows" or "a hare." Symbolically, the lion appears on the royal coat of arms of the kings of Scotland. Macbeth's and Banquo's fighting is compared to the action of artillery pieces (even though, historically, this battle would have been a sword fight, which emphasises the unprecedented superiority of Macbeth’s ability and character). Macbeth is credited with nothing less than recreating "Golgotha," the scene of Christ's crucifixion, which also foreshadows the tragic happenings of the play later on.

    After Macbeth receives word of his new title, Thane of Cawdor, he cannot reconcile the fact of the truth of the first prophecy with his intense and unnatural fear, or what he calls his "horrible imaginings." He admits to being so shaken by the news that he feels that his reason has been taken over by his imagination. The line "Nothing is, but what is not" is ambiguous. The expression could indicate confusion between the world we think of as real and the world of dreams, a neat summary of a confused mind. But how confused is Macbeth at this point? If he is capable of arguing that the prophecies are neither evil nor good, he is capable of accepting that nothing that exists has any existence or meaning. This interpretation could open Macbeth to dangerous and unjustifiable deeds. If he can make himself believe that "Nothing is, but what is not," then Macbeth's respect for order, for hierarchy, for the King, is also nullified. He can, literally, get away with murder. These are the beginnings of Macbeth’s ambition taking control of his actions.

    At the end of Act 1 Scene 5, Macbeth commands: “Stars hide your fire, let light not see my black and deep desires.” His ambition is unquestionably portrayed in this quote, as he admits to himself that he yearns for that which is yet impossible, and has desires to achieve it. Lady Macbeth notices: “What thou wouldst highly, that wouldst thou holily, wouldst not play false, and yet wouldst wrongly win”, showing that he is indeed full of ambition. The question remaining is whether this ambition is enough to persuade him to “catch the nearest way”.

    In Act 1 Scene 7, the imagery of Macbeth's soliloquy reveals the intentions he would like to achieve ("assassination," "success", but its construction shows the workings of a mind still very much in confusion. There is an insistent repetition of individual words — if, were, done, be, but, and here — each repeated two or three times within the first few lines. Within the fluid construction of this soliloquy, words and sounds constantly attract and suggest each other, giving the impression of a train of thought. All this begs the question of whether Macbeth, able to rationalize and express his thoughts, is thereby revealed as an intelligent, poetic soul. If that's the case, he appears more human, less capable of sinning, and, is therefore more capable of winning their sympathy.

    It is the thought of something after death that puzzles Macbeth. Macbeth wonders whether the act of murder itself must, by necessity, carry consequences in "the life to come" or whether judgment will await him in this life. Macbeth is simultaneously aware of the duplicity and imbalance of the proposed murder (he is Duncan's relative, subject, and host, yet he is to be his killer) and of the equality and balance of earthly and heavenly law: "this even-handed Justice / Commends the ingredients of our poison'd chalice / To our own lips" (11-12).

    Of further concern to Macbeth is the disparity between his own reputation and the world's perception of Duncan as a good and virtuous king. The final section of the speech contains an apocalyptic vision in which he imagines Duncan's virtue and pity proclaimed as if by angels and cherubim from a storm-filled sky. This doom-laden vision, whose imagery (for example, "trumpet-tongued" reflects that of the biblical Day of Judgment, gives way in turn to a nagging self-doubt, as he sees himself as killing someone dear to God, and so going against His will. Whereas he pictures the angels and cherubim "horsed upon the sightless couriers of the air," Macbeth admits that he himself has "no spur / to prick the sides of my intent but only / Vaulting ambition which o'erleaps itself / And falls on the other [side]" (25-28).

    Lady Macbeth must immediately detect Macbeth's self-doubt. When Macbeth admits to her that his golden reputation might lose its "gloss," she sets out to strengthen his resolve by mocking his perceived weakness. Her questions drive further the wedge between daring and doing, between courage and action, between desire and fulfillment. To these, she adds a distinction between masculinity and femininity: In contrast to her own self-proclaimed manliness, she pours scorn upon her husband's lack of courage. She tells him he is "green," "a coward," and that he resembles the proverbial "poor cat" who wanted the fish but would not get its paws wet. Finally, and most damningly, she tells him that her own lack of pity would extend to murdering her own child as it suckled at her breast. With this one terrifying example, she confirms that "the milk of human kindness" is absent in her.

    The next paragraph commences with a shift in tone — no less pragmatic but even more ruthlessly efficient — as Lady Macbeth switches her attention to the details of the murder itself. Her plan to drug the guards with alcohol is couched in metaphorical language derived from the ancient science of alchemy. The words "receipt," "fume," and "limbeck" specifically refer to this process, whose purpose was to turn base metal (such as lead) into gold. It is heavily ironic that, in the Macbeths' experiment, that which is gold — the king himself — will become base and doubly ironic that Macbeth's golden reputation will be reduced to worthlessness.

    Macbeth has been convinced. In words that uncannily recall his wife's, he now puts on the mantle of murderer: the monosyllabic "False face must hide what the false heart doth know" has a certainty to it that completely overturns his earlier vacillation.

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    Hope this helps!


    Can you explain the structure and form of the book please


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    (Original post by z_o_e)
    Can you explain the structure and form of the book please


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    It'll take me some time to write up, but sure, yh, and btw, its a PLAY. Make sure you don't say book in the exam.
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    (Original post by Boris Didov)
    It'll take me some time to write up, but sure, yh, and btw, its a PLAY. Make sure you don't say book in the exam.
    Alright thanks x that would mean a lot


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    (Original post by Boris Didov)
    In many of Shakespeare’s plays there exists relationships between characters; these relationships in many cases influence the direction in which the play goes. For example, in the “The Merchant Of Venice” the elopement of Lorenzo and Jessica is what triggers Shylock’s rage and blind desire for revenge, which sets the stage and the necessary atmosphere that is required for the climax in the court scene. Likewise in Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” the everlasting relationship between Macbeth and the three witches is the foundation of the entire plot. When Macbeth meets the witches he views them as honest and believes on them quickly. The witches having established contact with the protagonist, indirectly affect and transform his beloved wife. Towards his demise Macbeth finally realizes how the witches have heinously betrayed him.

    From the very start of the play the witches establish how important Macbeth is to their evil scheme: “There to meet with Macbeth”. It is from this moment that a permanent link is established between Macbeth and the witches. “A drum, a drum, Macbeth doth come”. The witches use extraordinary equivocatory language when speaking: “hail to thee Thane Glamis/ hail to thee thane of Cawdor/ All hail Macbeth that shalt be king hereafter”. Macbeth is confused, he is the thane of Glamis but not of Cawdor, and he is not the king. When Macbeth receives news of his promotion he immediately believes in the witches’ prophecies: “The greatest is behind-Thanks for your pains”.

    Macbeth is also very fond of the witches as they awaken in him his dormant vaulting ambition to be king. He cannot forget the meeting that he had with them: “My thought, whose murder is yet but fantastical, shakes so my very single state of man that function is smothered in surmise, and is but what is not”. Macbeth very quickly believes whole heartily without any shred of proof , it is unimaginable how the witches could manipulate one who is supposed to be “Valliant”. Macbeth trusts in the witches to an extent that he stars to suspect people who are close to him, even his brother in arms: “We would spend it in some words upon that business, if you would grant the time”. It is quite clear that Macbeth has become increasingly paranoid due to his evolving relationship with the three weird sisters.

    Throughout the whole play the witches are in Macbeth’s mind corrupting him even further. Lady Macbeth is no exception: “Come you spirits that tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here, and fill me from the crown to the toe top full direst cruelty.”. Notice how Lady Macbeth uses the word crown, this shows that the witches, in form of spirits, have filled lady Macbeth with ambition more vaulting than Macbeth’s one. Under the influence the witches she is driven to extreme measures: “Come thick night and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of Hell”. One would not have imagined that the witches’ power would have extended to influence humans to bow to the devil indirectly.

    The witches may also appear in many different forms, this has already been witnessed by the audience: “I come, Graymalkin”/ “Paddock calls”. When Duncan arrives at Macbeth’s castle the witches are present in a way. They are present in Lady Macbeth’s fake attitude towards the King: “Your majesty loads our house: for those of old, and the late dignities heap’d up to them, we rest your hermits.”. It is noticeable that Lady Macbeth speaks somewhat like the witches in rhyme this shows the extent of the power of the three weird sisters and how solid their relationship is with the Macbeths.

    The power of the witches does not cease to guide Macbeth further along the path of hell:“Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.”. A deadly illusion is created before Macbeth in order to make sure that he does not sway from his hell-bound vaulting ambition to become king. This is the most solid proof yet that the relationship between Macbeth and the witches is the triggers the most important events in the play: the murder of the gracious king Duncan.

    Having fully fulfilled the prophecy of the witches, the relationship between Macbeth and these ministers of evil continues to grow evermore leading Macbeth even closer to his demise: “How now, you secret, black and midnight hags?”. Notice the normal, familiar, even demanding tone that Macbeth uses with the witches this emphasizes how close Macbeth and the witches are, or so does Macbeth think. The witches corrupt Macbeth even further by showing him three apparitions: “Come high or low: thyself and office deftly show”.

    The apparitions were the cornerstone of the witches’ evil scheme; they further trick and blind Macbeth from the truth making him think that he is invincible, and hence deceiving him: “none of woman born shall harm Macbeth”/ “Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him”. It is here where we see the true face of the relationship between the witches and Macbeth as it really is: a deceptive, manipulating and equivocating one. This is never seen by Macbeth himself, which influences the story even more.

    To show the audience how the relationship between Macbeth and the witches is important to the plot of the play he breaks down their relationship at the climax of the play: “I looked toward Birnam, and anon methought the wood began to move”. The first brutal betrayal by the witches came at a time when Macbeth was already in turmoil due to the death of his partner in greatness. It is at this moment when an epiphany strikes Macbeth and shows him the true nature of the witches in which he placed so much of his trust: “I pull in resolution, and begin to doubt the equivocation of the fiend that lies like truth”.

    Even at when he is so near to his moment of death Macbeth still carries little belief of what the witches had previously told him: “Thou wast born of woman; but swords I smile at, weapons laugh to scorn brandished by man that’s of woman born”. This proves how intact the relationship between Macbeth and the weird sisters was; even after discovering that they betrayed him Macbeth still clings to the one prophecy that he hopes to be true. This fool’s hope is ripped away by Macduff: “Macduff was from his mother’s womb untimely ripped”. The solid, seemingly unbreakable relationship between Macbeth and the witches has finally broken down completely proving that it was futile from the start.

    This play is no exception to the fact that relationships are important and affect the story of Shakespeare’s plays. If it was not for the doomed relationship between the witches and Macbeth the play might not have been a tragedy at all. This bond between Macbeth and these minsters of evil serves as the cornerstone of the entire play and a crucial catalyst to the plot. It could be said that the relationship was forged before the fatal meeting and started to decide the fate of the plot and of Macbeth.

    http://www.studynotes.ie/wiki/the-th...macbeth-essay/

    Please refer to the website for further detail.
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    (Original post by Khanna13)
    http://www.studynotes.ie/wiki/the-th...macbeth-essay/

    Please refer to the website for further detail.
    haha adesh its acc less detail but ok
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    (Original post by Boris Didov)
    haha adesh its acc less detail but ok
    Users can navigate through the webpages to find detail that would overshadow your answer.
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    (Original post by Khanna13)
    Users can navigate through the webpages to find detail that would overshadow your answer.
    they can, yes.
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    This is some analysis and some notes on the first scene of the play
    ACT 1 SCENE 1 (THE WITCHES MEET)
    Witches introduced first – supernatural plays a key role in the play
    Speak in riddles (“again/rain”), rhymes, equivocation, trochaic tetrameter sounding like a haunting nursery rhyme making them sound unnatural and inhumane
    Their choral lines that set up the theme of deception create sense of foreboding
    Scene grabs our attention with its dramatic nonrealism
    Raises sense of curiosity and expectancy
    Establishes the importance of supernatural powers in the play
    Weather disturbance reflects evil and disruptive nature of the witches
    Stage directions (Pathetic fallacy) “thunder and lightning” create an atmosphere of danger and excitement. Foreshadows events in the play/destruction + evil deeds the witches shall be catalysts for.
    “In thunder, lightning, or in rain?” creepy, scary setting. Reflects upon the witches’ characteristics.
    “Hurly-burly’s” spells – scare the reader or viewer because they don’t know what they are talking about
    “Set of sun” they want to meet in the dark. This shows that they are creatures of the dark
    “When the battle’s lost and won.” Antithitheses. Could refer to the battle at the start or at the end of the play. Might hint at double-edged victory.
    “Fair is foul and foul is fair/Hover through the fog and filthy air”: Paradoxical language and use of oxymorons - showing they have abnormal logic. Speak using rhymes and chants-different from everyone else. Ambiguous and deliberately confusing. “Foul” and “filthy” suggest something dirty, disgusting and even wicked and immoral. “Fog” suggests that things are hidden, unseen or unclear. Incantation of witches’ speech is underlined by alliteration of “f” sound creating a sinister and malevolent atmosphere. They see virtuous things as bad. Vice versa. Invert the Christian moral order. They make their words seem true even though they are evil. Human nature represented by Macbeth shows that not everything is “foul” and “fair”.
    CONTEXT: Shakespeare’s patron, King James I, who had a deep interest in witchcraft, and had, in 1597, published a book about witchcraft called “Daemonologie” which discussed the powers of the witches, including their ability to control the weather and predict. WITCHCRAFT:
    • o The King of England, James I, was terrified of the witches so he passed a law promising death to anyone discovered to be a witch.
    • o Witches were thought to live underground.
    • o Witches were associated with the Devil.
    • o In 1589 in the German state of Quedlinburg, 133 women were tortured and killed because they were accused of witchcraft.
    • o Witches always ‘hung out’ in the trees.
    • o It was the custom to test for witchcraft by hanging her upside down from a tree. If she was sick she was a witch.
    • o King James I believed that he was God’s representative on earth and therefore the witches’ evil would be aimed at him.
    • o Witchcraft was believed in the Shakespeare’s day, largely as a way to explain away natural disasters and disease.
    • o All witches wore black.
    • o It was practice to test a woman for witchcraft by ducking her into water. If she floated, she was proved a witch: if she drowned, she was innocent – but dead!
    • Themes of good and evil, supernatural
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    Zoe what grade she do you get in maths
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    (Original post by omar10000000)
    Zoe what grade she do you get in maths
    Maths? I'm really bad at it. I get 4/5

    English 5/6


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