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Question 1: MCQ [1 Mark] - Cognitive Neuroscience
Correct Answer: A
Question 2: Outline [3 Marks] - Fight or Flight
Suggested Answer: When someone enters a potentially stressful situation, the amygdala (part of the limbic system) is activated. The amygdala sends a distress signal to the hypothalamus, which communicates with the body through the sympathetic nervous system. If the situation requires a short-term response the sympathomedullary pathway is activated, triggering the fight or flight response. This leads to the stimulation of the adrenal glands which secrete adrenaline into the blood stream leading to a series of physiological changes (e.g. increased heart rate) that helps the person either engage in a fight or run (flight).
q3: Outline [3 Marks] - Skinner's Research
examine operant conditioning in rats and pigeons. The animal would move around the Skinner box, and when it pressed the lever (by accident), it would be rewarded with a food pellet. The animal would learn, through positive reinforcement, that each time it pressed the lever, it would be rewarded with food. Consequently, because the animal was rewarded for its behaviour, it would continue to press the lever and demonstrate the new behaviour. However, Skinner also found that if the rewarded was stopped and the animal pressed the lever and was not rewarded with food, it’s behaviour would quickly stop and this is known as extinction.
question 4: Explain [3 Marks] - Reinforcement
A teacher might reward students with praise each time they pick up litter. This would act as positive reinforcement because the child would be receiving a reward (praise) each time they perform the desired behaviour (picking up litter). This might encourage the child who is being positively reinforced to continue picking up litter as they would desire further praise; however, it might also act as vicarious reinforcement to other children, who also want to receive the same rewards and consequently might also start picking up litter.
5: Brief Explanation [2 Marks] - Inference
Suggested Answer: Because cognitive psychologists are unable to directly observe mental processes (e.g. memory, perception, etc.) they study cognitive processes indirectly by making inferences. An inference is where a psychologist makes a reasoned conclusion about mental processes based on observable behaviour. Such inferences allow cognitive psychologists to generate theories and models, for example, the multi-store model of memory, which is a theoretical model which is an inferred representation of human memory.
Question 6: Describe and Evaluate [12 Marks] - SLT
Suggested Answer: Social learning theory (SLT) rests on the idea of observational learning: that learning occurs through the observation and imitation of behaviour performed by models in the social environment. It is evident from the conversation that John’s little sister has observed her older brother using a mobile phone and is imitating his behaviour by pretending to make a call. This may be because she looks up to John and sees him as a role model.
Unlike the behaviourist approach from which it derives, SLT recognises the importance of cognitive processing of informational stimuli (mediational processes) and rejects the notion that learning is purely the outcome of a stimulus-response loop. As its name implies, learning is a social phenomenon. For SLT to take place, someone must model an attitude or behaviour in a context defined by four distinct characteristics: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. If these factors are implemented, imitation (i.e. copying of what has been observed) can take place; if the observed behaviour is rewarded (either directly or vicariously), imitation is more likely. This learning from the observation of others’ rewards is what Bandura called vicarious learning. However, vicarious learning can also include learning from someone else’s misfortunes, and John’s sister does not to use her Dad’s favourite pen because she observed John being punished (told off) for using her Dad’s pen. Consequently, John’s sister will not imitate this behaviour because she has learned from the misfortunes of John who was punished for his actions.
ppl had diff answers for a03 so not doing that
Section B - PsychopathologyQuestion 6: Describe and Evaluate [12 Marks] - SLT
Question 7: Briefly Outline [2 Marks] - Flooding
Suggested Answer: Flooding is a behavioural therapy which exposes a person to the most anxiety-inducing stimulus immediately. With flooding, a person is unable to avoid (negatively reinforce) their phobia and through continuous exposure, anxiety levels eventually decrease. Since the option of employing avoidant behaviour is removed, extinction will eventually occur because anxiety is a time limited, and as a result, the fear will subside.
Question 8: Briefly Outline [2 Marks] - Systematic Desensitisation
Suggested Answer: Systematic desensitisation uses counter-conditioning to help people ‘unlearn’ their phobias, by eliciting another response, relaxation instead of fear. With systematic desensitisation, a person is gradually exposed to the anxiety-inducing stimulus until the anxiety is extinguished. The person works their way up a fear hierarchy, practising their relaxation techniques every step of the way until they reach the top and can remain relaxed in the most fearful situation.
Question 9: Briefly Discuss [2 Marks] - Flooding vs. Systematic Desensitisation
Suggested Answer: One reason that systematic desensitisation might be more successful than flooding is because the treatment is gradual.
With systematic desensitisation, a person is gradually exposed to their phobia starting with the least anxiety-inducing stimulus (at the bottom of the fear hierarchy) working their way up the hierarchy step-by-step, while remaining relaxed. With flooding, a person is exposed to the most anxiety-inducing stimulus straight away. Consequently, many people do not complete their treatment with flooding because the experience to too stressful and therefore they stop the treatment early which is why systematic desensitisation is more likely to be successful.
question 10: Explain [4 Marks] - OCD
Suggested Answer: Compulsions are a behavioural characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) which have two main properties: Firstly, compulsions are repetitive in nature, and secondly, compulsions are used to manage or reduce anxiety. Bob is demonstrating compulsive behaviour with his repetitive checking of the doors and plug sockets. Furthermore, Bob is clearly performing this behaviour to reduce anxiety as the extract suggests that he feels overwhelmed if he doesn’t complete these rituals.
Obsessive thoughts are the main cognitive characteristic of OCD. For sufferers of OCD, these thoughts are intrusive and occur over and over again. Furthermore, the thoughts are often inappropriate and frightening which means that sufferers do not want to share these thoughts. Bob is experiencing obsessive thoughts because he is concerned that his family will be in danger if he does not continually check the doors and plugs.
Question 11: Explain [4 Marks] - Biological Explanations for OCD
Suggested Answer: There are two main biological explanations for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): genetic and neural. Genetic explanations have focused on identifying specific candidate genes which are implicated in OCD. It is believed that OCD is a polygenic condition, which means that several genes are involved. Two examples of genes that have been linked to OCD are the COMT gene and SERT. It might be that Bob has inherited one or both genes which is why the doctor is looking into Bob’s family history, as these might be the cause of his OCD.
Neural explanations focus on different brain structures. The orbitofrontal cortex is a region which converts sensory information into thoughts and actions. PET scans have found higher activity in the orbitofrontal cortex in patients with OCD. Bob may be experiencing increased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex which is why the doctor has sent Bob for a brain scan as this could also be the cause of his OCD.
Question 12: Explain [2 Marks] - Psychology and the Economy
Suggested Answer: Research into depression can lead to enhanced treatments that improve the psychological health of patients with depression.
Enhanced treatments could reduce the number of cases of depression and help people return to work. This will reduce absenteeism and save the economy money through reduced sick pay payments. Furthermore, providing strategies that can help patients manage their psychological conditions (e.g. depression) may increase productivity in the workplace while reducing the strain/cost on the NHS, allowing more patients to access treatments.
Question 13: Outline and Evaluate [8 Marks] - Definitions of Abnormality
Suggested Answer: Two definitions of abnormality include statistical infrequency and and failure to function adequately (FFA). According to the statistical infrequency definition, a behaviour is seen as abnormal if it is statistically uncommon or not seen very often in society. For example, the average IQ is approximately 100 and 95% of the population have an IQ in the region of 70 to 130. However, a small percentage of the population (approximately 5%) have an IQ below 70 or above 130 and these people are statistically uncommon and therefore abnormal (according to this definition).
According to the FFA definition, a person is considered abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands of everyday life and live independently in society. Furthermore, to be classified as abnormal, a person’s behaviour should cause personal suffering and distress because of their failure to cope. However, they may also cause distress or discomfort to other people who observe their behaviour.
again ppl had diff a03 so not doing that
Section C - Research Methods
Question 14: Explain [2 Marks] - Hypotheses
Suggested Answer: No, it should be non-directional. Directional hypotheses are used when previous research suggests that the findings of a study will go in a particular direction; however, as the extract says ‘a psychologist was not aware of any previous research’, a directional hypothesis would not be appropriate.
Question 15: Calculate [2 Marks] - Percentage
22/40 = 0.55
0.55 x 100 = 55
55% of students reported that they would be able to concentrate ‘better’ if they listened to music.
Question 16: Explain [2 Marks] - Stratified Sampling
Suggested Answer: A stratified sample might improve this study by making the sample more representative of the students in the sixth form centre. With stratified sampling, there will be a proportional representation of the subgroups within the sixth form centre, as determined by the researcher (e.g. a proportional representation of males/females or different subjects studied, etc.) This might improve the generalisability of the findings to the target population (students within a sixth form centre).
Question 17: Explain [2 Marks] - Primary Data
Suggested Answer: Primary data is data which is collected or observed from first-hand experience (by the researchers). In this study, primary data was collected from the participants using a questionnaire which asked whether music makes their concentration ‘better’, ‘worse’ or ‘the same’ while working.
Question 18: Explain [2 Marks] - Mean
Suggested Answer: The mean is the most appropriate measure of central tendency because it considers the entire data set (for Task A and B). This means that the mean is more representative of the data set. Furthermore, as this is a repeated measures experiment and the researchers are comparing the differences found within the participants, it is important to examine the entire data set.
Question 19: Calculate [4 Marks] - Mean
Task A: 67 + 45 + 58 + 43 + 72 + 90 + 101 + 37 + 54 + 63 = 630
630/10 = 63
Task B: 82 + 70 + 60 + 59 + 77 + 105 + 90 + 59 + 83 + 89 = 774
774/10 = 77.4
Question 20: Discuss [3 Marks] - Counterbalancing
Suggested Answer: The purpose of counterbalancing is to ensure both conditions (Task A and B) are tested first and second in equal amounts. The purpose of this is to avoid order effects which could include practice effects, where participants perform better on their second trial, or fatigue/boredom effects, where participants perform worse on their second trial. By ensuring that half of the participants complete Task A first followed by B and the other half complete Task B first followed by A, then any order effects are balanced.
Question 21: Identify & Explain [3 Marks] - Extraneous Variables
Suggested Answer: One possible extraneous variable that the psychologists should have controlled is the time of day when completing Task A (Silence) and Task B (Music).
If the psychologist did not control this variable, then the participants who completed the experiment earlier in the day may find the 10 differences in the spot the difference puzzle faster because they are more alert. Consequently, this might make the results less valid because the experimenter might not be measuring the effect of Silence or Music, and might in fact be measuring alertness.
Question 22: Explain [4 Marks] - Improvements
Suggested Answer: The follow-up study is an improvement on the original because a laboratory experiment was used in comparison to a questionnaire. A laboratory-based experiment enables the researcher to determine the effect of the independent variable (silence and music) on the dependent variable (time taken to complete a spot the difference puzzle) and therefore enables the psychologist to establish causation.
Furthermore, the follow-up study gathered ratio data (time taken to complete a puzzle in seconds) in comparison to nominal data (‘better’, ‘worse’ and ‘the same’ categories). Ratio data allows for more powerful statistical procedures including the mean and standard deviation which are not possible with simple nominal categories, allowing the researchers to carry out more in-depth analysis.
and for the extraneous variables I wrote listening to same type of music?