Adding Kuznets curve to economic vs environmental sustainability 10 markerWatch
I found a 10 marker on economic vs environmental sustainability. Can you link the Kuznets curve in this answer please?
Sustainability is defined as ‘meeting the needs of today without compromising the needs of future generations’. This can be seen as economic or environmental and the amount of sustainability depends on the location. For example, China for economic sustainability and Ecuador for environmental sustainability. China is an NIC which has undergone rapid urbanisation and seen a huge economic growth of 8-10% per year. China is growing to be an economically sustainable country. Due to its economic growth it has rapidly improved its population’s livelihood as now only 19% of the population live below $1 per day.
Due to the transfer of technology, it has a well education workforce which has developed skills. 80% of its GDP has come from FDI meaning the economy is now very strong and has began to produce its own TNC’s. However, China has exploited the environment to develop economically. The WHO said China has 7 of the 10 most polluted cities in the world and China are the second largest consumer of oil in the world. In the future, this exploitation of the environment will hinder economic development due to a lack of finite resources and high levels of air pollution. The government in China, need to make decision upon how to improve this.
Environmental sustainability has been achieved in Ecuador through ecotourism schemes and keeping a fairly low level of development.
Tours of Ecuador are run by tribes and local people but a strict guideline is set up to ensure local environmental sustainability is ensured and the culture is protected. For example, no exchanging of gifts and all refuse must be removed from the rainforest environment. This scheme in Ecuador is essential to preserve biodiversity and the environment, however, people have a very low standard of living and have low development in the area, meaning that economic development may have to occur to improve people’s lives in a social and economic way – eg improve the GDP per capita. In conclusion, China has achieved economic sustainability and improved the population’s livelihood, but with huge impact to the environment as opposed to Ecuador ecotourism schemes in the rainforest where ecology is hugely protected but at the limit of tribes and local peoples social and economic development.
You could also link it to Ecuador, and say that they are somewhere along the first part of the curve, showing that they might need to become less environmentally sustainable to develop economically. You could also argue that their ecotourism is contributing slightly to their economic development, meaning they're developing in a much more sustainable way (albeit more slowly) that is not recognised by the Kuznet's curve.
Did the Chinese government publicly announce this recognition? Did they propose any responses to tackle climate change?