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# Unofficial markscheme Psychology paper 1 7th June (AQA) 2017 watch

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1. *Please note the mark scheme will not be worked on until after the exam and is using students' memory of the questions that were asked*

Last year we made an unofficial mark scheme for both AS Papers using Google Docs and having lots of students contribute the questions that were asked and the answers to them. They can be found here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1...h.y66q2b5qglqi

I'm hoping we can do the same thing this year so find the 2017 A Level document here: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1...it?usp=sharing

After the exam, head here to put in the questions and answers you can remember, its quite useful for working out what you got and for future students to use in revision.
2. Was it nominal data or quantitative/qualitative? (For the first question)
3. (Original post by alba1357)
Was it nominal data or quantitative/qualitative? (For the first question)
I put nominal. Realise now that's a level of measurement not a type of data. Think they were looking for either primary or quantitative.

Edit: looks like nobody knows what the heck it was
4. Nominal data, was named categories of either pupils who did the questionaire or not
5. Please give us the mark scheme, I think I messed some things up 😢
6. Yeah so many people put nominal, I did too..
7. There are multiple answers to some questions I think so I will sort this out later after my revision
Okay so correct me on some questions/answers but this is what i put:

1. What kind of data was used in this experiment? (2 marks)
quantitative data because they were counting the number of participants who completed each condition, quantitative data is numerical data. Many people have also put nominal data or primary data however nominal data is a level of measurement and not a kind of data? Unsure, the first few questions for social were confusing for everyone it seems.

2. What will happen in each condition? (3 marks)
In condition 1 ppts will complete the questionnaire as they want to be with the majority. condition 2 allows ppts to think freely and free them from their conscience as the minority is influencing them, so they are more likely to not complete the questionnaire

3. How can you overcome the limitations of the design used? (4 marks)
Random allocation. put ppts name into a hat, first 15 drawn out are assigned to condition 1, the next 15 to condition 2. this minimises individual differences as participant variables are randomly assigned to conditions. Many people have also said to use a repeated measures or patched pairs design to minimise extraneous variables. I think standardisation may also be acceptable here as an independent measures design was used and this can be used to minimise extraneous variables also.

4. Chi squared test was used, apart from levels of measurement, give two reasons why it was used (2 marks)
Used because it was independent groups and they were looking for a difference. Although the difference was given in the stem, it asked not to talk about nominal data as that is a level of measurement

5. Using the degrees of freedom table, is data from this experiment significant? (2 marks)
Yes, data is significant because the calculated value of 3.97 is larger than the critical value of 3.85 at the significance level of 5%

6. Discuss the authoritarian personality as an explanation for obedience (8 marks)
The authoritarian personality was found by adorno who said it had certain characteristics, these would include conventional attitudes towards sex, race and gender. They believe we need strong leaders to enforce traditional values and are extremely loyal and submissive to authority. This type of personality was found to be as a result of harsh parenting. This parenting style consisted of high expectations, criticism of perceived failings, and conditional love.

However, one limitation of this explanation is that it cannot explain why a whole country obeyed. For example, pre-war germany all had racist, anti-sematic views and therefore displayed the personality depsite the fact that they must have had individual differences in their personality. This means that this explanation cannot apply to everyone, so social identity theory is more correct.

Although Milgram and Elms found a positive correlation between scoring highly on the F scale and an authoritarian personality, there were methodological issues with this study. Participants would be led to the authoritarian personality as all questions were worded in the same direction. This means participants could be characterised with an authoritarian personality by simply agreeing and ticking boxes, these people are known as acquiscers. This means the explanation has a limited external validity.

7.Outline another explanation for obedience (3 marks)
Agentic state is a social-psychological explanation. The autonomous state is when you are responsible for your own actions. The agentic shift occurs when you perceive someone else as an authoritative figure so you shift your responsibility to them. You could also talk about legitimate authority here

8. Outline two differences between episodic and procedural memory (4 marks)
Episodic memory is remembering episodes/events of your life which may also recall associated emotions eg. first date. Procedural memory is your memory for actions such as riding a bike, we don't have to think about this so our brain can carry out other processes. Procedural memory is implicit memory(non-declarative) ie. we don't have to think about it whereas episodic is declarative, we have to think about it (consciously recalled)

9. How will the word lists affect recall? (4 marks)
List A uses acoustically similar words, stm codes acoustically so its harder to recall. List B uses semantically similar words and LTM codes acoustically so harder to recall

10. Discuss theories/research into misleading questions for eyewitness testimony (16 marks)
Loftus and palmer with the leading question on car accidents using different critical verbs

https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/r...-june-2017-aqa

11. Two insecure resistant characteristics (2 marks)
high stranger anxiety, low willingness to explore the new environment

12. Identify three stages of attachment (3 marks)
Any three from asocial, specific, indiscriminate,multiple

13. Outline reciprocity in infant-caregiver interactions (2 marks)
Responding to the action of another with a similar response, where the action of one person elicits a response from another, not necessarily the same as in interactional synchrony ie. not mirroring behaviour

14. Briefly evaluate research into caregiver infant interactions (4 marks)
High internal validity as cameras were used to record babies from multiple angles and babies dont know/care being observed so no demand characteristics Inter-observer reliability - strange situation observers had correlation coefficient of 94% = high reliability = categories well operationalised

limitation - research is socially sensitive as it suggests that babies are at a disadvantage if parents return to work early. limitation - research is socially sensitive - imposed etc - e.g. Germans viewed as cold and rejecting, mothers made to take maternity leave when don't want to...

14. Stem question on anca effects of institutionalisation (5 marks)
Delayed intellectual development as poor conditions might not provide mental stimulation, disinhibited attachment as may not have had once specific careworker so she will treat strangers with appropriate familiarity, poorer social relationships later in life, developmental dwarfism, mental health issues like depression

15. Discuss findings into cultural variations of attachment (8 marks)
Van ijzendoorn and kroonenberg study and findings, takahashi (or other study you have been taught), evaluation of van ijzendoorn can be explained by mass media and it measured countries not cultures as in each country there are many different cultures

https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/r...-june-2017-aqa

16. 2 cognitive characteristics of OCD (2 marks)
Obsessions and realising their thoughts are irrational

17. Outline one or more treatments of phobias (6 marks)
Systematic desensitisation or flooding. SD uses desensitisation hierarchy creates reciprocal inhibition, counter conditioning, relaxation techniques then exposure. flooding uses extinction as all time is spent with stimulus in one 2-3 hour session.

https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/r...-june-2017-aqa

18. Application question to Rob. outline and evaluate failure to function and deviation from mental health (16 marks)
Failure to function is personal distress maladaptive behaviour and not complying to interpersonal rules, rob is hearing voices which are threatening so this is causing personal distress. deviation from mental health consists of not self actualising, not being able to do daily tasks, poor hygiene. Rob was being unhygienic as he was untidy, not self actualised as he may not be getting into uni

limitation - devation from mental health treats it in the same way as physical health and does not look at root cause so treatment may not be effective for rob.

strength - deviation from mental health creates characteristics most commonly used to diagnose poor mental health

limitation - cannot apply to other cultures as collectivist cultures do not worry about self-actualisation as they put the group before themselves

failure to function - limitation is that its subjective to who is assessing distress
strength - some dysfunctional behaviour is functional eg depressed people who self harm get attention and so can be treated

https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/r...-june-2017-aqa
8. (Original post by chloebooth)
I put nominal. Realise now that's a level of measurement not a type of data. Think they were looking for either primary or quantitative.
I started by putting nominal but changed it to primary data, talking to everyone after the exam they seemed to put nominal as well. I felt like it made no sense as question 3 referred to the measurement of data, which is nominal, that's the only reason why I changed my answer
9. 1. I wrote about nominal data but I think both nominal and quantitative is correct

3. Matched pairs and some more detail on it

Thanks for this!
I more or less wrote what you wrote for the rest of the questions.
10. The first question i put primary data as that is the use of questionnaires,interviews and things of that nature and it is first hand results, also they are also games from the participants themselves
11. (Original post by Natalie147)
I started by putting nominal but changed it to primary data, talking to everyone after the exam they seemed to put nominal as well. I felt like it made no sense as question 3 referred to the measurement of data, which is nominal, that's the only reason why I changed my answer
hi, can i still pull my grade up to an A or a B id i do really well on the other two papers, i made a lot of dumb mistakes and misread questions on this paper but i thought i would do so much better thanks
12. 1. Nominal data

3. Matched pairs - match by IQ or locus of control measurement to reduce possible extraneous variables

8. episodic = declarative (consciously recalled) and procedural = non-declarative (recalled without conscious effort)

11. Insecure resistant characteristics - high stranger anxiety, DO SEEK PROMIXITY*

14. Briefly evaluate research into caregiver infant interactions - Inter-observer reliability - strange situation observers had correlation coefficient of 94% = high reliability = categories well operationalised

limitation - research is socially sensitive - imposed etc - e.g. Germans viewed as cold and rejecting, mothers made to take maternity leave when don't want to...

14. stem question on anca effects of institutionalisation - low IQ (mental retardation)-Rutter, disinhibited attachment (indiscriminate behaviour)-Zeanah et al. (2006?), psychopathy-Bowlby

Those are the answers I remember putting which are a bit different to yours.

I totally messed up on authoritarian personality because I just couldn't remember more than AO1 at least I put it was socially sensitive due to blame game..will that count as AO3?
13. (Original post by jacob1371)
hi, can i still pull my grade up to an A or a B id i do really well on the other two papers, i made a lot of dumb mistakes and misread questions on this paper but i thought i would do so much better thanks
It does depend on how you did on this paper but each paper is worth 33.3% of the overall grade. If you do really well on the other 2 it is possible, it just might be more difficult to achieve or it may not very high in the grade boundaries.
14. Question 1 is the type of data, primary data can be accepted and so can nominal Question 3 is how to reduce individual differences, matched pairs repeated measures and random allocation all reduce individual differences
15. Thanks for the response, I will try and update this tonight after speaking to others but Ive got to finish some revision first. I think the first section was very confusing and there are probably several different answers
16. Are you sure question 11 is correct? I remember putting higher stranger anxiety, but i didnt put proximity seeking. Does anyone remember what the other options were so i can remind myself?
17. (Original post by tanyapriya)
Are you sure question 11 is correct? I remember putting higher stranger anxiety, but i didnt put proximity seeking. Does anyone remember what the other options were so i can remind myself?
Other options were moderate stranger anxiety (secure) accepting comfort (secure) and avoiding something (avoids)
18. 16. I said obsessions but also compulsions (or something like that) I thought that knowing it's irrational was part of phobias.
19. (Original post by Zozaaaa)
Other options were moderate stranger anxiety (secure) accepting comfort (secure) and avoiding something (avoids)
ooohh it was multiple choice.
All I know is that Insecure-resistants seek proximity and explore little so I'm not sure why it would be that.
20. (Original post by tanyapriya)
Are you sure question 11 is correct? I remember putting higher stranger anxiety, but i didnt put proximity seeking. Does anyone remember what the other options were so i can remind myself?
Others were:
indifferent to separation
Clearly happy on reunion
And another one - I remember ruling them out systematically, one was avoidant, 2 were secure and 2 were resistant -
The ones listed are what I put
High stranger anxiety and don't want to explore

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