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I am resitting HIS3B ( the triumph of elizabeth ) and I was wondering if anyone could leave comments or feedback on my mock exam answer? its the 45 marker of the aqa paper. i realise this paper is being discontinued but any advice at all would be much appreciated.

To what extent was the deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations in the years 1559 to 1585 due to disputes concerning overseas trade?


Disputes concerning overseas trade certainly had much to do with the deterioration of Anglo – Spanish relations in the years 1559 to 1585. England conducted a number of separate attacks on Spanish trading bases which resulted in increased resentment from the Spanish. However, it can be said that a number of other factors must be taken into account, including the two countries opposing religions and the personal relationships between Elizabeth and Philip.

The personal relationship between Elizabeth and Philip certainly had an adverse effect on the state of anglo-spanish relations. Philip had proposed to Elizabeth many times and her refusal has been argued to have left him dejected and offended. Whilst this clearly did not account for the extent of the decline, it is easy to see how it played a part in the two countries estrangement, especially when Elizabeth began serious marriage negotiations with the duke of Anjou.

On top of this, the opposing religion of both parties was always going to cause an element of friction. Particularly as France was suffering from religious turmoil. The French catholic league was joined by Spain with the aim of preventing henry of Navarre from succeeding. Troops arrived in franc and Elizabeth had no choice but to sign the treaty of Hampton court. In this way, both countries were essentially fighting each other. This made the idea of war with each other less far fetched and certainly went a way to reducing the friendliness between the two countries. On top of this, in 1572, Elizabeth signed the treaty of Blois with France establishing a defensive league against Spain. This consolidation of alliance left Spain alone and implied that the natural alliance they had had in the 1560s was over.

These factors certainly go a way to explaining the decline in Anglo – Spanish relations and show that overseas trade did not solely account for the decline, however, overseas trade can be argued to be the root of all tensions as specifically the freedom of the Netherlands dominated English foreign policy throughout the time period as the countries main concern.

When Elizabeth realized that Philip II was working to wards complete control of the Netherlands as a Spanish colony, she made her feelings clear with her support of the pacification of Ghent. When this was not honored she sent an mercenary army under john Casmir, and when this failed she sent an English army under the command of Leicester. Philip saw these continual interventions into the fate of the Netherlands as direct challenges to his authority and above all his sovereignty. Neither did much to improve relations.

The fate of the Netherlands and England’s desire to keep it at least semi-autonomous can be seen in many aspects of English foreign policy. As always Elizabeth showed mighty reluctance to go to war which would expend money and resources, therefore adopting a policy of harassment as an alternative. The impounding of the Spanish bullion in 1568 was a result of this. However it only served to anger Philip and the enthusiastic de spes ordered for English property in the Netherlands to be seized. This tit for tat attitude meant the relatively standard act of impounding bullion snowballed into a bitter conflict.

The desire to keep the Netherlands free also influenced various attacks towards Spain. Unsurprisingly, these angered Philip II and made him less reluctant to sponsor or support plots against Elizabeth. For example the expedition of Hawkins to break the Spanish shipping monopoly in the Caribbean had Elizabeth’s support and infuriated Philip so much that he blockaded the port of san Juan de ulua and only two English ships managed to escape. This would have angered Elizabeth in turn whose frugal nature would have felt the seizure of her ships more personally than perhaps most monarchs.

On the Spanish side, the frequent plots against Elizabeth with Spanish involvement were becoming annoyingly frequent. From the ridolfi plot in 1571 to the throckmorton plot in 1583, the support Philip gave to deposing Elizabeth can hardly have served to ease tensions between he two countries.

In conclusion, the extent to which disputes over overseas trade impacted the decline in Anglo – Spanish relations cannot be understated. Of course, outside factors such as Elizabeth being regarded as the protestant defender of Europe (albeit reluctantly) was bound to cause friction between the two countries and the consistent annoying actions by both parties, Philip with his plots and Elizabeth with her supporting of the sea beggars, did much to slowly chip away at the once assumed alliance. it is arguable that had Philip not challenged the semi-autonomous nature of the Netherlands, Elizabeth would have had less incentive to rock the boat and sponsor privateering expeditions to break the Spanish trading stronghold. In fact both parties showed willingness to cooperate, for example with the treaty of nygemen.
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KyleH123
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(Original post by fsfs)
I am resitting HIS3B ( the triumph of elizabeth ) and I was wondering if anyone could leave comments or feedback on my mock exam answer? its the 45 marker of the aqa paper. i realise this paper is being discontinued but any advice at all would be much appreciated.

To what extent was the deterioration of Anglo-Spanish relations in the years 1559 to 1585 due to disputes concerning overseas trade?


Disputes concerning overseas trade certainly had much to do with the deterioration of Anglo – Spanish relations in the years 1559 to 1585. England conducted a number of separate attacks on Spanish trading bases which resulted in increased resentment from the Spanish. However, it can be said that a number of other factors must be taken into account, including the two countries opposing religions and the personal relationships between Elizabeth and Philip.

The personal relationship between Elizabeth and Philip certainly had an adverse effect on the state of anglo-spanish relations. Philip had proposed to Elizabeth many times and her refusal has been argued to have left him dejected and offended. Whilst this clearly did not account for the extent of the decline, it is easy to see how it played a part in the two countries estrangement, especially when Elizabeth began serious marriage negotiations with the duke of Anjou.

On top of this, the opposing religion of both parties was always going to cause an element of friction. Particularly as France was suffering from religious turmoil. The French catholic league was joined by Spain with the aim of preventing henry of Navarre from succeeding. Troops arrived in franc and Elizabeth had no choice but to sign the treaty of Hampton court. In this way, both countries were essentially fighting each other. This made the idea of war with each other less far fetched and certainly went a way to reducing the friendliness between the two countries. On top of this, in 1572, Elizabeth signed the treaty of Blois with France establishing a defensive league against Spain. This consolidation of alliance left Spain alone and implied that the natural alliance they had had in the 1560s was over.

These factors certainly go a way to explaining the decline in Anglo – Spanish relations and show that overseas trade did not solely account for the decline, however, overseas trade can be argued to be the root of all tensions as specifically the freedom of the Netherlands dominated English foreign policy throughout the time period as the countries main concern.

When Elizabeth realized that Philip II was working to wards (towards is one word) complete control of the Netherlands as a Spanish colony, she made her feelings clear with her support of the pacification of Ghent. When this was not honored(, needs a comma) she sent a (a merc not an) mercenary army under john Casmir, and when this failed(need a comma comma) she sent an English army under the command of Leicester. Philip saw these continual interventions into the fate of the Netherlands as direct challenges to his authority and above all his sovereignty. Neither did much to improve relations.

The fate of the Netherlands and England’s desire to keep it at least semi-autonomous can be seen in many aspects of English foreign policy. As always (need comma) Elizabeth showed mighty reluctance to go to war which would expend money and resources, therefore adopting a policy of harassment as an alternative. The impounding of the Spanish bullion in 1568 was a result of this. However (always a comma after starting a sentence with however) it only served to anger Philip and the enthusiastic de spes ordered for English property in the Netherlands to be seized. This tit for tat attitude meant the relatively standard act of impounding bullion snowballed into a bitter conflict.

The desire to keep the Netherlands free also influenced various attacks towards Spain. Unsurprisingly, these angered Philip II and made him less reluctant to sponsor or support plots against Elizabeth. For example (comma again) the expedition of Hawkins to break the Spanish shipping monopoly in the Caribbean had Elizabeth’s support and infuriated Philip so much that he blockaded the port of san Juan de ulua and only two English ships managed to escape. This would have angered Elizabeth in turn whose frugal nature would have felt the seizure of her ships more personally than perhaps most monarchs.

On the Spanish side, the frequent plots against Elizabeth with Spanish involvement were becoming annoyingly frequent. From the ridolfi plot in 1571 to the throckmorton plot in 1583, the support Philip gave to deposing Elizabeth can hardly have served to ease tensions between he two countries.

In conclusion, the extent to which disputes over overseas trade impacted the decline in Anglo – Spanish relations cannot be understated. Of course, outside factors such as Elizabeth being regarded as the protestant defender of Europe (albeit reluctantly) was bound to cause friction between the two countries and the consistent annoying actions by both parties, Philip with his plots and Elizabeth with her supporting of the sea beggars, did much to (*too? ) slowly chip away at the once assumed alliance. i (capital letter) t is arguable that had Philip not challenged the semi-autonomous nature of the Netherlands, Elizabeth would have had less incentive to rock the boat and sponsor privateering expeditions to break the Spanish trading stronghold. In fact (comma) both parties showed (a) willingness to cooperate, for example with the treaty of nygemen.
Sorry, I don't take History, but I can help with grammar and punctuation. See the words I have emboldened.
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