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    For all of you and for myself:
    Some parts I will miss but I am going through the parts I think are more important for you guys. Like you should already know about the parts of animal cells and plant cells.

    CELLS:

    Mitochondria - Respiration
    Ribosomes - Produce protein

    Bacteria cells have a strand of DNA

    Proteins are made up of amino acids:

    Diffusion is the movement of dissolved substances from a HIGH to LOW concentration

    TISSUES:

    Stomach:
    Muscular Tissue: Contract, Churn food
    Glandular Tissue: Produce digestive juices (hormones, enzymes)
    Epithelial Tissue: Cover inside and outside of stomach

    ORGANS:

    Small Intestine: Absorbs soluble food
    Large Intestine: Absorbs water from food
    Liver: Produces Bile

    BILE:

    1) Produced in liver
    2) Stored in gall bladder
    - Neutralises stomach acid (HCL)
    - Emulsifies fats

    ENZYMES:

    Conditions: pH and Temperature
    Poor conditions = denature (changes shape of enzyme and active site)

    Amylase = Starch → Sugar
    Protease = Proteins → Amino Acids
    Lipase = Fats → Fatty Acids + Glycerol
    *All 3 are produced in the Pancreas and Small Intestine

    ENZYME INDUSTRY:

    Protease: Pre-digest food for baby food.
    Carbohydrase: Starch Syrup → Sugar Syrup
    Isomerase: Glucose (sweet) → Fructose (sweeter, so less needed) for slimming food

    PLANTS:

    Phloem transports food
    Xylem transports water

    Nitrate ions: Help produce amino acids, for protein, to grow.
    Magnesium ions: Produce chlorophyll (green pigment), for photosynthesis, stops leaves turning yellow.

    Waxy Cuticle layer: Reduce water loss
    Spongy Mesophyll: Gas exchange
    Palisade Leaf Cells: Photosynthesis

    -- Cactii have spines (curled leaf), less stomata, less water loss.

    GLUCOSE:

    Uses in plants:
    - Cellulose, Cell Walls
    - Respiration
    - Fats and Oils
    - Proteins

    Glucose + Nitrate ions = Amino Acids

    Protein = Biological Catalyst

    RESPIRATION:

    Aerobic:
    Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + ENERGY

    Anaerobic:
    Glucose → Lactic Acid + ENERGY

    Oxygen Debt: When oxygen is needed to repay the energy produced during excercise and reacts to break down lactic acid

    Energy use:
    - Build larger molecules from smaller molecules
    - Contract muscles
    - Build nutrients in to amino acids
    - Steady Temperature

    CELL DIVISION:

    Mitosis divides ONCE
    Meiosis divides TWICE

    Embryo = Mitosis

    ALLELE:

    Allele: Form of a gene

    Dominant Allele = Controls a characteristic if 1 dominant allele is present
    Recessive Allele = Controls a characteristic if 2 recessive alleles are present

    STEM CELLS:

    Formed:
    - In bone marrow
    - In early embryo

    They differentiate

    Cure diseases


    Ok thanks guys but there is so much in B2 I can't make this too long.
    HERE ARE ALL THE TOPICS NOT ON THIS THREAD:
    - Genetics
    - Embryo Screening
    - Genetic disorders BLALBLALBLALLBA
    - Basically Genetics

    I hope I have helped some people and I want to wish the best of luck to everyone taking this AND the B3 exam on 09/06/2017
 
 
 
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