My Biology B2 AQA Efficient Notes Watch

isaac036
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For all of you and for myself:
Some parts I will miss but I am going through the parts I think are more important for you guys. Like you should already know about the parts of animal cells and plant cells.

CELLS:

Mitochondria - Respiration
Ribosomes - Produce protein

Bacteria cells have a strand of DNA

Proteins are made up of amino acids:

Diffusion is the movement of dissolved substances from a HIGH to LOW concentration

TISSUES:

Stomach:
Muscular Tissue: Contract, Churn food
Glandular Tissue: Produce digestive juices (hormones, enzymes)
Epithelial Tissue: Cover inside and outside of stomach

ORGANS:

Small Intestine: Absorbs soluble food
Large Intestine: Absorbs water from food
Liver: Produces Bile

BILE:

1) Produced in liver
2) Stored in gall bladder
- Neutralises stomach acid (HCL)
- Emulsifies fats

ENZYMES:

Conditions: pH and Temperature
Poor conditions = denature (changes shape of enzyme and active site)

Amylase = Starch → Sugar
Protease = Proteins → Amino Acids
Lipase = Fats → Fatty Acids + Glycerol
*All 3 are produced in the Pancreas and Small Intestine

ENZYME INDUSTRY:

Protease: Pre-digest food for baby food.
Carbohydrase: Starch Syrup → Sugar Syrup
Isomerase: Glucose (sweet) → Fructose (sweeter, so less needed) for slimming food

PLANTS:

Phloem transports food
Xylem transports water

Nitrate ions: Help produce amino acids, for protein, to grow.
Magnesium ions: Produce chlorophyll (green pigment), for photosynthesis, stops leaves turning yellow.

Waxy Cuticle layer: Reduce water loss
Spongy Mesophyll: Gas exchange
Palisade Leaf Cells: Photosynthesis

-- Cactii have spines (curled leaf), less stomata, less water loss.

GLUCOSE:

Uses in plants:
- Cellulose, Cell Walls
- Respiration
- Fats and Oils
- Proteins

Glucose + Nitrate ions = Amino Acids

Protein = Biological Catalyst

RESPIRATION:

Aerobic:
Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + ENERGY

Anaerobic:
Glucose → Lactic Acid + ENERGY

Oxygen Debt: When oxygen is needed to repay the energy produced during excercise and reacts to break down lactic acid

Energy use:
- Build larger molecules from smaller molecules
- Contract muscles
- Build nutrients in to amino acids
- Steady Temperature

CELL DIVISION:

Mitosis divides ONCE
Meiosis divides TWICE

Embryo = Mitosis

ALLELE:

Allele: Form of a gene

Dominant Allele = Controls a characteristic if 1 dominant allele is present
Recessive Allele = Controls a characteristic if 2 recessive alleles are present

STEM CELLS:

Formed:
- In bone marrow
- In early embryo

They differentiate

Cure diseases


Ok thanks guys but there is so much in B2 I can't make this too long.
HERE ARE ALL THE TOPICS NOT ON THIS THREAD:
- Genetics
- Embryo Screening
- Genetic disorders BLALBLALBLALLBA
- Basically Genetics

I hope I have helped some people and I want to wish the best of luck to everyone taking this AND the B3 exam on 09/06/2017
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