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    hi guys. here's the MS for B3, i believe there's already B2 out so may not be making one for that. will see how it goes though.

    1a) how does deforestation increase global warming? [1]
    reduces amount of CO2 taken in by photosynthesis, thus more in atmosphere

    1b) decay question, graph given. forest A has temp of 10 degrees, what is decay rate? [1]
    0.8 arbitrary units

    1c) Forest B has temp of 30 degrees. what is decay rate? [1]
    3.2/3.3

    1d) how does decay increase global warming? [2]
    microorganisms respire to decay, respiration releases CO2. leads to global warming


    2a) what does sulphur dioxide contribute to? [1]
    acid rain

    2b) calculate % decrease of SO2 from UK sources[2]
    1400 - 480 = 920, 920/1400 x 100 = 65.7%

    2c) describe the trend shown by the graph uk transport SO2 production [2]
    increased at one point up to (2005) and then decreased. After that it decreased at slower rate and the overall change was (cant remember)

    3) 6 marker on removal of waste [6]
    urea made in liver from excess amino acids. this is carried in the blood plasma and carried to the kidney, where it's filtered in the tubule. ALL urea is removed and blood passes back out. The filtered urea is mixed with excess ions and water to form urine, which is transported to the bladder, and then released later.
    cells respire to release CO2 which is a waste product. this is also carried in the plasma and RBC's and diffuses into the lungs where it's exhaled out. water from respiration may also follow this path.

    4a) heart question. label X and Y. [2]
    X was left ventricle. Y was aorta

    4b) heart contains valves. what is the function of valves? [1]
    to prevent back flow of blood

    4c) compare pros and cons mechanical valve [4]
    no deaths from mechanical valve, 3 times less chance of death from second operation. however, almost double chance of death from bleeding, and need to consider whether the material (plastic) is durable and can withstand the pressure of the blood in the heart.

    5ai) two tissues and what they transport [2]
    xylem - water
    phloem - sugars/minerals

    5aii) describe the process of active transport [3]
    substances move against concentration gradient, from low to high concentration, requiring energy from respiration.

    5b) student said that D was clover plant, use figure to suggest and explain why [3]
    showed fastest rate of mass loss (4.4g) in the 30 mins, due to largest number of stomata per mmsquared. (337.3) this means more water loss, so more transpiration

    5c) clear box around plant A, how does this affect rate of transpiration [3]
    box means water lost from some water vapour does not escape and so higher concentration around plant, makes it humid. this cools it, so rate slows and less water is lost. there's also no wind to increase the rate and so rate is slower

    6a) Name substance X [1]
    glucose

    6b) scientist says a load of crap. work out the ratio of potassium to sodium ions[1]
    112:38, 56:19, 2.9:1 or 3:1

    6c) the scientist says P was the best sports drink, suggest why [2]
    high glucose and ion content, while maintaining 2:1 ratio of ions

    6d) the concentration inside blood cells is 280. T has a concentration of 493. explain what happens to the cell when put in the drink. [3]
    the cell loses water by osmosis due to the concentration gradient formed as the sports drink T has higher concentration, the cell shrinks.

    7ai) describe how the brain detect change in body temperature [2]
    receptors in skin detect change and sends impulse to thermoregulatory centre in brain.

    7aii) the man falls of the mountain. begins to shiver in cold water. He's injured and can't move. Explain how shivering raises his core body temperature. [3]
    shivering is rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles. to contract these muscles need energy from respiration. as respiration occurs the energy warms the body.

    7b) other than shivering, explain other ways in which the body is kept warm. [3]
    can be the following:
    hair rises, traps warm layer of air to insulate, reducing heat loss,
    sweat glands stop producing sweat, thus no evaporation of it to remove energy
    vasoconstriction, less heat lost by radiation.

    8) 5 marker on villi, adaptation coeliac. Explain why someone with this disease would lose weight feel and have a vit and min deficiency. [5]
    lower surface area means less absorption of soluble foods and vits and mins. less capillaries mean slower rate of absorption, longer diffusion pack means takes longer and so less absorbed. overall, less absorbed so lose weight and lack mins and vits

    9a) explain what happens when the pancreas detects rise in blood sugar levels [2]
    produces more insulin, glucose enters cells, lower blood sugar concentration

    9b) someone with glycogen storage disorder. after exercise, they feel tired and may be unconscious. explain why they may feel this way [4]
    glycogen is insoluble and so isnt used up until needed. As this person cant convert it, it remains as glucose and ALL of it gets used up during exercise, this means that there's less energy provided later as there's lack of glucose, and they feel tired and unconscious.

    FULL MARK SCHEME.
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    hi guys. here's the MS for B3, i believe there's already B2 out so may not be making one for that. will see how it goes though.

    1a) how does deforestation increase global warming? [1]
    reduces amount of CO2 taken in by photosynthesis, thus more in atmosphere

    1b) decay question, graph given. forest A has temp of 10 degrees, what is decay rate? [1]
    0.8 arbitrary units

    1c) Forest B has temp of 30 degrees. what is decay rate? [1]
    3.2/3.3

    1d) how does decay increase global warming? [2]
    microorganisms respire to decay, respiration releases CO2. leads to global warming


    2a) what does sulphur dioxide contribute to? [1]
    acid rain

    2b) calculate % decrease of SO2 from UK sources[2]
    1400 - 480 = 920, 920/1400 x 100 = 65.7%

    2c) describe the trend shown by the graph uk transport SO2 production [2]
    increased at one point up to (2005) and then decreased. After that it decreased at slower rate and the overall change was (cant remember)

    3) 6 marker on quadrats/sampling [6]
    cba to type up

    4a) heart question. label X and Y. [2]
    X was left ventricle. Y was aorta

    4b) heart contains valves. what is the function of valves? [1]
    to prevent back flow of blood

    4c) compare pros and cons mechanical valve [4]
    no deaths from mechanical valve, 3 times less chance of death from second operation. however, almost double chance of death from bleeding, and need to consider whether the material (plastic) is durable and can withstand the pressure of the blood in the heart.

    5ai) two tissues and what they transport [2]
    xylem - water
    phloem - sugars/minerals

    5aii) describe the process of active transport [3]
    substances move against concentration gradient, from low to high concentration, requiring energy from respiration.

    5b) student said that D was clover plant, use figure to suggest and explain why [3]
    showed fastest rate of mass loss (4.4g) in the 30 mins, due to largest number of stomata per mmsquared. (337.3) this means more water loss, so more transpiration

    5c) clear box around plant A, how does this affect rate of transpiration [3]
    box means water lost from some water vapour does not escape and so higher concentration around plant, makes it humid. this cools it, so rate slows and less water is lost. there's also no wind to increase the rate and so rate is slower

    6a) Name substance X [1]
    glucose

    6b) scientist says a load of crap. work out the ratio of potassium to sodium ions[1]
    112:38, 56:19, 2.9:1 or 3:1

    6c) the scientist says P was the best sports drink, suggest why [2]
    high glucose and ion content, while maintaining 2:1 ratio of ions

    6d) the concentration inside blood cells is 280. T has a concentration of 493. explain what happens to the cell when put in the drink. [3]
    the cell loses water by osmosis due to the concentration gradient formed as the sports drink T has higher concentration, the cell shrinks and plasmolyses.

    7ai) describe how the brain detect change in body temperature [2]
    receptors in skin detect change and sends impulse to thermoregulatory centre in brain.

    7aii) the man falls of the mountain. begins to shiver in cold water. He's injured and can't move. Explain how shivering raises his core body temperature. [3]
    shivering is rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles. to contract these muscles need energy from respiration. as respiration occurs the energy warms the body.

    7b) other than shivering, explain other ways in which the body is kept warm. [3]
    can be the following:
    hair rises, traps warm layer of air to insulate, reducing heat loss,
    sweat glands stop producing sweat, thus no evaporation of it to remove energy
    vasoconstriction, less heat lost by radiation.

    8) 5 marker on villi, adaptation coeliac. Explain why someone with this disease would lose weight feel and have a vit and min deficiency. [5]
    lower surface area means less absorption of soluble foods and vits and mins. less capillaries mean slower rate of absorption, longer diffusion pack means takes longer and so less absorbed. overall, less absorbed so lose weight and lack mins and vits

    9a) explain what happens when the pancreas detects rise in blood sugar levels [2]
    produces more insulin, glucose enters cells, lower blood sugar concentration

    9b) someone with glycogen storage disorder. after exercise, they feel tired and may be unconscious. explain why they may feel this way [4]
    glycogen is insoluble and so isnt used up until needed. As this person cant convert it, it remains as glucose and ALL of it gets used up during exercise, this means that there's less energy provided later as there's lack of glucose, and they feel tired and unconscious.

    FULL MARK SCHEME.
    for the thermoregularatory i've seen in previous papers where they said the thermoregulatory in the brain detects change in temperature of the blood trvelling to the brain.

    "scientists say a load of crap" LOL

    also these are my predicted boundaries. Seeing as triple is taken by a small percentage, it shouldnt be mad high.

    45 A*
    40 A
    33 B

    lower is C or below.
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    (Original post by Pretish)
    for the thermoregularatory i've seen in previous papers where they said the thermoregulatory in the brain detects change in temperature of the blood trvelling to the brain.

    "scientists say a load of crap" LOL

    also these are my predicted boundaries. Seeing as triple is taken by a small percentage, it shouldnt be mad high.

    45 A*
    40 A
    33 B

    lower is C or below.
    B3 usually has lower grade boundaries as many tend to focus on revision for B2 instead. I'd say 44 a* 38 A, 32 B and 27 a C
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    hi guys. here's the MS for B3, i believe there's already B2 out so may not be making one for that. will see how it goes though.

    1a) how does deforestation increase global warming? [1]
    reduces amount of CO2 taken in by photosynthesis, thus more in atmosphere

    1b) decay question, graph given. forest A has temp of 10 degrees, what is decay rate? [1]
    0.8 arbitrary units

    1c) Forest B has temp of 30 degrees. what is decay rate? [1]
    3.2/3.3

    1d) how does decay increase global warming? [2]
    microorganisms respire to decay, respiration releases CO2. leads to global warming


    2a) what does sulphur dioxide contribute to? [1]
    acid rain

    2b) calculate % decrease of SO2 from UK sources[2]
    1400 - 480 = 920, 920/1400 x 100 = 65.7%

    2c) describe the trend shown by the graph uk transport SO2 production [2]
    increased at one point up to (2005) and then decreased. After that it decreased at slower rate and the overall change was (cant remember)

    3) 6 marker on removal of waste [6]
    urea made in liver from excess amino acids. this is carried in the blood plasma and carried to the kidney, where it's filtered in the tubule. ALL urea is removed and blood passes back out. The filtered urea is mixed with excess ions and water to form urine, which is transported to the bladder, and then released later.
    cells respire to release CO2 which is a waste product. this is also carried in the plasma and RBC's and diffuses into the lungs where it's exhaled out. water from respiration may also follow this path.

    4a) heart question. label X and Y. [2]
    X was left ventricle. Y was aorta

    4b) heart contains valves. what is the function of valves? [1]
    to prevent back flow of blood

    4c) compare pros and cons mechanical valve [4]
    no deaths from mechanical valve, 3 times less chance of death from second operation. however, almost double chance of death from bleeding, and need to consider whether the material (plastic) is durable and can withstand the pressure of the blood in the heart.

    5ai) two tissues and what they transport [2]
    xylem - water
    phloem - sugars/minerals

    5aii) describe the process of active transport [3]
    substances move against concentration gradient, from low to high concentration, requiring energy from respiration.

    5b) student said that D was clover plant, use figure to suggest and explain why [3]
    showed fastest rate of mass loss (4.4g) in the 30 mins, due to largest number of stomata per mmsquared. (337.3) this means more water loss, so more transpiration

    5c) clear box around plant A, how does this affect rate of transpiration [3]
    box means water lost from some water vapour does not escape and so higher concentration around plant, makes it humid. this cools it, so rate slows and less water is lost. there's also no wind to increase the rate and so rate is slower

    6a) Name substance X [1]
    glucose

    6b) scientist says a load of crap. work out the ratio of potassium to sodium ions[1]
    112:38, 56:19, 2.9:1 or 3:1

    6c) the scientist says P was the best sports drink, suggest why [2]
    high glucose and ion content, while maintaining 2:1 ratio of ions

    6d) the concentration inside blood cells is 280. T has a concentration of 493. explain what happens to the cell when put in the drink. [3]
    the cell loses water by osmosis due to the concentration gradient formed as the sports drink T has higher concentration, the cell shrinks and plasmolyses.

    7ai) describe how the brain detect change in body temperature [2]
    receptors in skin detect change and sends impulse to thermoregulatory centre in brain.

    7aii) the man falls of the mountain. begins to shiver in cold water. He's injured and can't move. Explain how shivering raises his core body temperature. [3]
    shivering is rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles. to contract these muscles need energy from respiration. as respiration occurs the energy warms the body.

    7b) other than shivering, explain other ways in which the body is kept warm. [3]
    can be the following:
    hair rises, traps warm layer of air to insulate, reducing heat loss,
    sweat glands stop producing sweat, thus no evaporation of it to remove energy
    vasoconstriction, less heat lost by radiation.

    8) 5 marker on villi, adaptation coeliac. Explain why someone with this disease would lose weight feel and have a vit and min deficiency. [5]
    lower surface area means less absorption of soluble foods and vits and mins. less capillaries mean slower rate of absorption, longer diffusion pack means takes longer and so less absorbed. overall, less absorbed so lose weight and lack mins and vits

    9a) explain what happens when the pancreas detects rise in blood sugar levels [2]
    produces more insulin, glucose enters cells, lower blood sugar concentration

    9b) someone with glycogen storage disorder. after exercise, they feel tired and may be unconscious. explain why they may feel this way [4]
    glycogen is insoluble and so isnt used up until needed. As this person cant convert it, it remains as glucose and ALL of it gets used up during exercise, this means that there's less energy provided later as there's lack of glucose, and they feel tired and unconscious.

    FULL MARK SCHEME.
    pretty sure for 7ai you can talk about how the blood passes through the thermoregulatory system in the brain and how it has temperature receptors? I think i remember it coming up in a past paper.
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    My reaction to this - ****.
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    hi guys. here's the MS for B3, i believe there's already B2 out so may not be making one for that. will see how it goes though.

    1a) how does deforestation increase global warming? [1]
    reduces amount of CO2 taken in by photosynthesis, thus more in atmosphere

    1b) decay question, graph given. forest A has temp of 10 degrees, what is decay rate? [1]
    0.8 arbitrary units

    1c) Forest B has temp of 30 degrees. what is decay rate? [1]
    3.2/3.3

    1d) how does decay increase global warming? [2]
    microorganisms respire to decay, respiration releases CO2. leads to global warming


    2a) what does sulphur dioxide contribute to? [1]
    acid rain

    2b) calculate % decrease of SO2 from UK sources[2]
    1400 - 480 = 920, 920/1400 x 100 = 65.7%

    2c) describe the trend shown by the graph uk transport SO2 production [2]
    increased at one point up to (2005) and then decreased. After that it decreased at slower rate and the overall change was (cant remember)

    3) 6 marker on removal of waste [6]
    urea made in liver from excess amino acids. this is carried in the blood plasma and carried to the kidney, where it's filtered in the tubule. ALL urea is removed and blood passes back out. The filtered urea is mixed with excess ions and water to form urine, which is transported to the bladder, and then released later.
    cells respire to release CO2 which is a waste product. this is also carried in the plasma and RBC's and diffuses into the lungs where it's exhaled out. water from respiration may also follow this path.

    4a) heart question. label X and Y. [2]
    X was left ventricle. Y was aorta

    4b) heart contains valves. what is the function of valves? [1]
    to prevent back flow of blood

    4c) compare pros and cons mechanical valve [4]
    no deaths from mechanical valve, 3 times less chance of death from second operation. however, almost double chance of death from bleeding, and need to consider whether the material (plastic) is durable and can withstand the pressure of the blood in the heart.

    5ai) two tissues and what they transport [2]
    xylem - water
    phloem - sugars/minerals

    5aii) describe the process of active transport [3]
    substances move against concentration gradient, from low to high concentration, requiring energy from respiration.

    5b) student said that D was clover plant, use figure to suggest and explain why [3]
    showed fastest rate of mass loss (4.4g) in the 30 mins, due to largest number of stomata per mmsquared. (337.3) this means more water loss, so more transpiration

    5c) clear box around plant A, how does this affect rate of transpiration [3]
    box means water lost from some water vapour does not escape and so higher concentration around plant, makes it humid. this cools it, so rate slows and less water is lost. there's also no wind to increase the rate and so rate is slower

    6a) Name substance X [1]
    glucose

    6b) scientist says a load of crap. work out the ratio of potassium to sodium ions[1]
    112:38, 56:19, 2.9:1 or 3:1

    6c) the scientist says P was the best sports drink, suggest why [2]
    high glucose and ion content, while maintaining 2:1 ratio of ions

    6d) the concentration inside blood cells is 280. T has a concentration of 493. explain what happens to the cell when put in the drink. [3]
    the cell loses water by osmosis due to the concentration gradient formed as the sports drink T has higher concentration, the cell shrinks and plasmolyses.

    7ai) describe how the brain detect change in body temperature [2]
    receptors in skin detect change and sends impulse to thermoregulatory centre in brain.

    7aii) the man falls of the mountain. begins to shiver in cold water. He's injured and can't move. Explain how shivering raises his core body temperature. [3]
    shivering is rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles. to contract these muscles need energy from respiration. as respiration occurs the energy warms the body.

    7b) other than shivering, explain other ways in which the body is kept warm. [3]
    can be the following:
    hair rises, traps warm layer of air to insulate, reducing heat loss,
    sweat glands stop producing sweat, thus no evaporation of it to remove energy
    vasoconstriction, less heat lost by radiation.

    8) 5 marker on villi, adaptation coeliac. Explain why someone with this disease would lose weight feel and have a vit and min deficiency. [5]
    lower surface area means less absorption of soluble foods and vits and mins. less capillaries mean slower rate of absorption, longer diffusion pack means takes longer and so less absorbed. overall, less absorbed so lose weight and lack mins and vits

    9a) explain what happens when the pancreas detects rise in blood sugar levels [2]
    produces more insulin, glucose enters cells, lower blood sugar concentration

    9b) someone with glycogen storage disorder. after exercise, they feel tired and may be unconscious. explain why they may feel this way [4]
    glycogen is insoluble and so isnt used up until needed. As this person cant convert it, it remains as glucose and ALL of it gets used up during exercise, this means that there's less energy provided later as there's lack of glucose, and they feel tired and unconscious.

    FULL MARK SCHEME.
    you, sir, are pretty much guaranteed an A*
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    (Original post by Domsebhill)
    pretty sure for 7ai you can talk about how the blood passes through the thermoregulatory system in the brain and how it has temperature receptors? I think i remember it coming up in a past paper.
    nah u can say skin receptors, it's still a way to measure temp change
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    (Original post by ZaydRehman)
    you, sir, are pretty much guaranteed an A*
    I do hope so aha
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    nah u can say skin receptors, it's still a way to measure temp change
    wasn't saying you were wrong bro just wondered if what I put was correct
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    I do hope so aha
    inshaallah
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    hi guys. here's the MS for B3, i believe there's already B2 out so may not be making one for that. will see how it goes though.

    1a) how does deforestation increase global warming? [1]
    reduces amount of CO2 taken in by photosynthesis, thus more in atmosphere

    1b) decay question, graph given. forest A has temp of 10 degrees, what is decay rate? [1]
    0.8 arbitrary units

    1c) Forest B has temp of 30 degrees. what is decay rate? [1]
    3.2/3.3

    1d) how does decay increase global warming? [2]
    microorganisms respire to decay, respiration releases CO2. leads to global warming


    2a) what does sulphur dioxide contribute to? [1]
    acid rain

    2b) calculate % decrease of SO2 from UK sources[2]
    1400 - 480 = 920, 920/1400 x 100 = 65.7%

    2c) describe the trend shown by the graph uk transport SO2 production [2]
    increased at one point up to (2005) and then decreased. After that it decreased at slower rate and the overall change was (cant remember)

    3) 6 marker on removal of waste [6]
    urea made in liver from excess amino acids. this is carried in the blood plasma and carried to the kidney, where it's filtered in the tubule. ALL urea is removed and blood passes back out. The filtered urea is mixed with excess ions and water to form urine, which is transported to the bladder, and then released later.
    cells respire to release CO2 which is a waste product. this is also carried in the plasma and RBC's and diffuses into the lungs where it's exhaled out. water from respiration may also follow this path.

    4a) heart question. label X and Y. [2]
    X was left ventricle. Y was aorta

    4b) heart contains valves. what is the function of valves? [1]
    to prevent back flow of blood

    4c) compare pros and cons mechanical valve [4]
    no deaths from mechanical valve, 3 times less chance of death from second operation. however, almost double chance of death from bleeding, and need to consider whether the material (plastic) is durable and can withstand the pressure of the blood in the heart.

    5ai) two tissues and what they transport [2]
    xylem - water
    phloem - sugars/minerals

    5aii) describe the process of active transport [3]
    substances move against concentration gradient, from low to high concentration, requiring energy from respiration.

    5b) student said that D was clover plant, use figure to suggest and explain why [3]
    showed fastest rate of mass loss (4.4g) in the 30 mins, due to largest number of stomata per mmsquared. (337.3) this means more water loss, so more transpiration

    5c) clear box around plant A, how does this affect rate of transpiration [3]
    box means water lost from some water vapour does not escape and so higher concentration around plant, makes it humid. this cools it, so rate slows and less water is lost. there's also no wind to increase the rate and so rate is slower

    6a) Name substance X [1]
    glucose

    6b) scientist says a load of crap. work out the ratio of potassium to sodium ions[1]
    112:38, 56:19, 2.9:1 or 3:1

    6c) the scientist says P was the best sports drink, suggest why [2]
    high glucose and ion content, while maintaining 2:1 ratio of ions

    6d) the concentration inside blood cells is 280. T has a concentration of 493. explain what happens to the cell when put in the drink. [3]
    the cell loses water by osmosis due to the concentration gradient formed as the sports drink T has higher concentration, the cell shrinks and plasmolyses.

    7ai) describe how the brain detect change in body temperature [2]
    receptors in skin detect change and sends impulse to thermoregulatory centre in brain.

    7aii) the man falls of the mountain. begins to shiver in cold water. He's injured and can't move. Explain how shivering raises his core body temperature. [3]
    shivering is rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles. to contract these muscles need energy from respiration. as respiration occurs the energy warms the body.

    7b) other than shivering, explain other ways in which the body is kept warm. [3]
    can be the following:
    hair rises, traps warm layer of air to insulate, reducing heat loss,
    sweat glands stop producing sweat, thus no evaporation of it to remove energy
    vasoconstriction, less heat lost by radiation.

    8) 5 marker on villi, adaptation coeliac. Explain why someone with this disease would lose weight feel and have a vit and min deficiency. [5]
    lower surface area means less absorption of soluble foods and vits and mins. less capillaries mean slower rate of absorption, longer diffusion pack means takes longer and so less absorbed. overall, less absorbed so lose weight and lack mins and vits

    9a) explain what happens when the pancreas detects rise in blood sugar levels [2]
    produces more insulin, glucose enters cells, lower blood sugar concentration

    9b) someone with glycogen storage disorder. after exercise, they feel tired and may be unconscious. explain why they may feel this way [4]
    glycogen is insoluble and so isnt used up until needed. As this person cant convert it, it remains as glucose and ALL of it gets used up during exercise, this means that there's less energy provided later as there's lack of glucose, and they feel tired and unconscious.

    FULL MARK SCHEME.
    Mate question 1 is wrong, like there are other plants that absorb it
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    (Original post by Domsebhill)
    wasn't saying you were wrong bro just wondered if what I put was correct
    yeah man i was just saying either is right aha
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    (Original post by Domsebhill)
    pretty sure for 7ai you can talk about how the blood passes through the thermoregulatory system in the brain and how it has temperature receptors? I think i remember it coming up in a past paper.
    yeah thats what i put aswell!
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    (Original post by ZaydRehman)
    inshaallah
    insha allah man, all biology units went well for me alhumdulillah
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    (Original post by awesometmartin)
    Mate question 1 is wrong, like there are other plants that absorb it
    nah cus it still reduces the amount of photosynthesis occurring, cus if there was one tree left its not like thats going to be doing enough photosynthesis for the whole world
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    (Original post by mahmed69)
    hi guys. here's the MS for B3, i believe there's already B2 out so may not be making one for that. will see how it goes though.

    1a) how does deforestation increase global warming? [1]
    reduces amount of CO2 taken in by photosynthesis, thus more in atmosphere

    1b) decay question, graph given. forest A has temp of 10 degrees, what is decay rate? [1]
    0.8 arbitrary units

    1c) Forest B has temp of 30 degrees. what is decay rate? [1]
    3.2/3.3

    1d) how does decay increase global warming? [2]
    microorganisms respire to decay, respiration releases CO2. leads to global warming


    2a) what does sulphur dioxide contribute to? [1]
    acid rain

    2b) calculate % decrease of SO2 from UK sources[2]
    1400 - 480 = 920, 920/1400 x 100 = 65.7%

    2c) describe the trend shown by the graph uk transport SO2 production [2]
    increased at one point up to (2005) and then decreased. After that it decreased at slower rate and the overall change was (cant remember)

    3) 6 marker on removal of waste [6]
    urea made in liver from excess amino acids. this is carried in the blood plasma and carried to the kidney, where it's filtered in the tubule. ALL urea is removed and blood passes back out. The filtered urea is mixed with excess ions and water to form urine, which is transported to the bladder, and then released later.
    cells respire to release CO2 which is a waste product. this is also carried in the plasma and RBC's and diffuses into the lungs where it's exhaled out. water from respiration may also follow this path.

    4a) heart question. label X and Y. [2]
    X was left ventricle. Y was aorta

    4b) heart contains valves. what is the function of valves? [1]
    to prevent back flow of blood

    4c) compare pros and cons mechanical valve [4]
    no deaths from mechanical valve, 3 times less chance of death from second operation. however, almost double chance of death from bleeding, and need to consider whether the material (plastic) is durable and can withstand the pressure of the blood in the heart.

    5ai) two tissues and what they transport [2]
    xylem - water
    phloem - sugars/minerals

    5aii) describe the process of active transport [3]
    substances move against concentration gradient, from low to high concentration, requiring energy from respiration.

    5b) student said that D was clover plant, use figure to suggest and explain why [3]
    showed fastest rate of mass loss (4.4g) in the 30 mins, due to largest number of stomata per mmsquared. (337.3) this means more water loss, so more transpiration

    5c) clear box around plant A, how does this affect rate of transpiration [3]
    box means water lost from some water vapour does not escape and so higher concentration around plant, makes it humid. this cools it, so rate slows and less water is lost. there's also no wind to increase the rate and so rate is slower

    6a) Name substance X [1]
    glucose

    6b) scientist says a load of crap. work out the ratio of potassium to sodium ions[1]
    112:38, 56:19, 2.9:1 or 3:1

    6c) the scientist says P was the best sports drink, suggest why [2]
    high glucose and ion content, while maintaining 2:1 ratio of ions

    6d) the concentration inside blood cells is 280. T has a concentration of 493. explain what happens to the cell when put in the drink. [3]
    the cell loses water by osmosis due to the concentration gradient formed as the sports drink T has higher concentration, the cell shrinks and plasmolyses.

    7ai) describe how the brain detect change in body temperature [2]
    receptors in skin detect change and sends impulse to thermoregulatory centre in brain.

    7aii) the man falls of the mountain. begins to shiver in cold water. He's injured and can't move. Explain how shivering raises his core body temperature. [3]
    shivering is rapid contraction and relaxation of muscles. to contract these muscles need energy from respiration. as respiration occurs the energy warms the body.

    7b) other than shivering, explain other ways in which the body is kept warm. [3]
    can be the following:
    hair rises, traps warm layer of air to insulate, reducing heat loss,
    sweat glands stop producing sweat, thus no evaporation of it to remove energy
    vasoconstriction, less heat lost by radiation.

    8) 5 marker on villi, adaptation coeliac. Explain why someone with this disease would lose weight feel and have a vit and min deficiency. [5]
    lower surface area means less absorption of soluble foods and vits and mins. less capillaries mean slower rate of absorption, longer diffusion pack means takes longer and so less absorbed. overall, less absorbed so lose weight and lack mins and vits

    9a) explain what happens when the pancreas detects rise in blood sugar levels [2]
    produces more insulin, glucose enters cells, lower blood sugar concentration

    9b) someone with glycogen storage disorder. after exercise, they feel tired and may be unconscious. explain why they may feel this way [4]
    glycogen is insoluble and so isnt used up until needed. As this person cant convert it, it remains as glucose and ALL of it gets used up during exercise, this means that there's less energy provided later as there's lack of glucose, and they feel tired and unconscious.

    FULL MARK SCHEME.
    For 6d. I put that the cell will take in water via osmosis which would hydrate the cell because when they talk about concentration I thought they meant the concentration of solutes rather than the water concentration? so if there was a higher concentration of solutes in the cell then surely water would move into the cell rather than out? just wondering if anyone else got the same?
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    (Original post by Domsebhill)
    nah cus it still reduces the amount of photosynthesis occurring, cus if there was one tree left its not like thats going to be doing enough photosynthesis for the whole world
    Obvs they didn't chop up the amazon rainforest or something
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    (Original post by Ewanross10)
    Ur ****ing retarded if you think that's wrong
    didn't know u were an examiner oooh
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    (Original post by charliewoodward)
    For 6d. I put that the cell will take in water via osmosis which would hydrate the cell because when they talk about concentration I thought they meant the concentration of solutes rather than the water concentration? so if there was a higher concentration of solutes in the cell then surely water would move into the cell rather than out? just wondering if anyone else got the same?
    I put something similar but it's wrong as water will move from a dilute (cell) solution to a more concentrated solution(drink)
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    (Original post by awesometmartin)
    didn't know u were an examiner oooh
    Nah I'm just dumb 😂
 
 
 
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