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    So i made this from other people's posts combined, if parts aren't correct please let me know
    If there's parts missing tell me haha

    1)
    [Where are epithelial cells found?]
    Epithelial cells can be found in the skin or inside the body as lining around organs (There is more for this)

    [Labelling the parts of the epithelial cell]
    -Cell membrane
    -Cytoplasm
    [What are ribosomes for?]
    -Protein synthesis

    [What is diffusion]
    -Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration to achieve equilibrium

    2) [6 marker on the quadrat]
    ~Random sampling by standing and throwing
    ~Sample different areas
    ~Count twice to remove human error
    ~Repeat investigation to be more valid
    ~Count number of plants in quadrat and test the pH using the measure
    ~Repeat in different areas of pH
    - etc.

    3) [Glucose sports drinks]
    [Why are placebos important?]
    To provide a control to compare it to and so thst the cyclists don't know which they have so they don't act differently thinking that they are under the influence
    [Evaluate the scientists' conclusion - Sports drinks make cyclists perform better] ??
    Agree as the figure showed this, the placebo cyclists weren't able to carry on after 3 hours whereas when given sports drinks they were able to. The cyclists performance was generally much higher when given the glucose drink. taken over a period of a week
    Disagree as it may not help performance because it was tested on a stationary bike at a constant speed which isn't realistic for a race. At around 2 (or 3) hours the glucose fuelled cyclists had a large drop in performance which would not help them in a race. Not enough cyclists tested on, increase the number.

    [Explain how the increased breathing rate, heart rate and concentration of glucose improve the athlete's performance]
    ~Increased breathing rate
    = more oxygen to go into blood to be used for respiration, lets aerobic respiration happen which causes no lactic acid to build up so cyclist can continue to go
    = more opportunity for carbon dioxide to be expelled

    ~Increased heart rate
    = heart beats more so pumps more blood which takes more glucose and oxygen to cells for respiration to release energy so cyclist can be stronger

    ~Concentration of glucose
    = Raise the amount of respiration that can be done with more glucose so more energy can be released which provides the cyclist with more energy

    4) [What starch breaks down into]
    Starch --> Sugars

    [Control variables of starch experiment]
    - Same volume of amylase
    - Same volume of starch
    - Same amount of time given for starch to break down

    [Iodine colour]
    4 minutes = Dark Blue
    6 minutes = Light brown

    [Improvements to the experiment]
    - Repeat at the different pH levels
    - Use smaller intervals of pH between 6-8 to get a more accurate result

    [Suggest what happens to Amylase in pH 3]
    It gets denatured so won't work in these conditions or (possibly) the reaction will slow down even further

    5) [Equation for photosynthesis]
    Carbon dioxide + Water --> Glucose and Oxygen

    [Arbitrary units at 0.04%]
    16 arbitrary units

    [Percentage increase in arbitrary units from 0.04% to 0.08%]
    25% increase
    - Increase from 16 to 20 was 4.
    -One way to work it out is to do (4/16) x 100% = 25%
    -- You use 4 as the increase and 16 as your original number to work out the change.

    [Why farmers shouldn't use more than 0.08%]
    Causes more global warming, costs more, it's no more effective to use over 0.08% as everything above this has the same arbitrary units - therefore it would be a waste

    [Changes the farmer could make to raise photosynthesis]
    -Increase light
    -Increase temperature

    6) [What is an allele?]
    Different forms of the same gene

    [Type of cell division]
    Mitosis

    [How many chromosomes in a human cell?]
    46 chromosomes

    [Number of divisions to get to 16 cells]
    4 divisions

    [What does recessive mean?]
    A non dominant allele that must have two copies for it to show

    [What does heterozygous mean?]
    Two different alleles

    [Ethical disadvantage of embryo screening]
    Could harm the embryo or the mother

    [Advantage of embryo screening]
    Stop the suffering of the child, find out if the child had a genetic disorder

    [Genetic cross diagram]
    You should get NN, Nn, Nn and nn
    - so the possibility of 25% or 1/4

    7)[What is a species?]
    A group of organisms that have common genes and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring

    [How do we use fossils to see how species today have evolved from simple organisms?]
    -Fossil record
    -evidence of previous species
    -can provide comparisons
    -Shows the bones
    -etc.

    [Different species question]
    -Geographical isolation
    -Speciation (can't interbreed)
    -Adaptation and mutation
    -Natural selection
    - Similar characteristics due to few changes as there's reasonably similar environments
    -Dinosaurs not hunting them so no need to fly
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    Thanks for making this! I think I got around 56. Any estimates to what UMS this would be? (I need to be high in case tripple went as bad as I think!)
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    (Original post by Exponential-1.5)
    Thanks for making this! I think I got around 56. Any estimates to what UMS this would be? (I need to be high in case tripple went as bad as I think!)
    Last year the grade boundary for unit 2 was about 45/60 for an A* which would have got you a 90 for the UMS.
    A 56 last year was 100
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    Possibly add in small explanations for the small marker questions? I've seen tons of people claim it's a 20% increase.
    16 to 20
    1/4 of 16 is 4
    16 + 4 = 20
    1/4 = 25% So if 100% is considered to be 16, 100+25% = 125 % of original = 20
    Therefore 25% increase
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    (Original post by conjf)
    Possibly add in small explanations for the small marker questions? I've seen tons of people claim it's a 20% increase.
    16 to 20
    1/4 of 16 is 4
    16 + 4 = 20
    1/4 = 25% So if 100% is considered to be 16, 100+25% = 125 % of original = 20
    Therefore 25% increase
    Sure - I'll do that now
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    I also made a mark scheme which might have things that you are missing:

    Question 1

    What is the function of the epithelial tissue in human cells (1 mark)?
    The epithelial tissue covers the surface of organs such as the stomach

    What is A and C in the epithelial cell (2 marks)?
    - Cytoplasm
    - Cell membrane

    What is the function of Ribosomes (1 mark)?
    Protein synthesis

    What is diffusion (2 marks)?
    - Net Movement of particles
    - From a High concentration to a low concentration

    Question 2
    A student noticed that in a Marshland there were "more Heath plants in areas with high PH levels." Using diagram 6 ( a picture of a quadrant and a PH indicator) explain a method how the student could test the hypothesis. Explain how he would make the test reliable. (6 marks).

    - Quadrat placed randomly, non biased location, and student counts amount of the plant in a section, then takes the soil pH.
    - Does this in multiple locations to see the distribution of these plants, comparing them to pH levels.
    - Record results in table and plot on graph to see correlation
    - Can be repeated so results are accurate

    Question 3
    What is the word equation for Photosynthesis (1 mark)?
    Carbon dioxide + Water -- (Sunlight) --> Oxygen + glucose

    Complete the equation (1 mark)?
    Starch --(Amylase)--> Sugars

    Students were seeing the effect of the rate of carbon dioxide concentration to photosynthesis
    Give two control variables the students used in the investigation (2 marks)

    - Same volume of amylase
    - Same volume of Starch

    What was the arbitrary units at 0.04%?
    16

    The student reached a conclusion that PH7 was the best working condition. The conclusion is not accurate give 2 reasons how they can improve their experiment ( 2 marks).
    - Smaller PH interval
    - Repeat experiment again

    Starch is checked for presence by adding iodine
    Brown colour = Starch present
    Yellowish colour = No starch present
    What is the colour of the leaf:
    at PH6 0.04% = Brown colour (1 mark)
    at PH6 0.08% = Yellow colour (1 mark)

    Explain what will happen to the Amylase at PH3 (2 marks)?
    - Amylase denatures/ Active site changes shape/ Substrate cannot bind
    - No production of starch

    Question 4
    What is the percentage increase between 0.04% to 0.08% (2 marks)?
    20/16 = 1.25
    answer = 25%

    Why can't the farmer use more than 0.08% (2 marks)?
    - The rate of photosynthesis will not change
    - There are other limiting factors

    Name two other limiting factors (2 marks)?
    - Light intensity
    - Temperature

    Question 5
    Why is it important that the cyclists don't know the difference between the placebo and the glucose drink (2 marks)?
    - So that the results are controlled
    - So the cyclists perform the same under both drugs.

    Evaluate the scientist's method of conducting the experiment on the cyclists (4 marks )?
    Positives
    - A week interval between each session
    - A placebo was given so that results could be compared
    Negatives
    - The cyclists were not monitored during the week: they make have different glucose intake
    - Not a large of cyclists only 7 were tested

    Explain how the increased heart rate, faster flow of blood and increased breathing rate improve the athlete's performance (4 marks).
    - During exercise, more energy is required.
    - Increased heartbeat allows more blood to be pumped around the body
    - Blood flows faster as it needs to provide oxygen to muscles
    - The breathing rate increases so that more oxygen enters the body preventing oxygen debt and lactic acid build up.

    Question 7
    What is an allele? (1 marks)?
    - A form of a gene

    What is meant by recessive? (1 mark)?
    - It heterozygous allele or it is not dominant or it is two different alleles


    What is meant by heterozygous (1 mark)?
    - It is recessive allele or it is not dominant or it is two different alleles

    Parents are planning to have a child.
    Use a genetic diagram to find the probability that the new child will have PKU.
    Use the following symbols in your answer:
    N = the dominant allele for not having PKU n = the recessive allele for PKU.
    Label the diagram (4 marks)


    genetic diagram including:
    Parental gametes: N and n and | N and n derivation of offspring genotypes:
    NN Nn Nn nn identification:
    NN and Nn as non PKU
    NN free from PKU
    Nn carrier of PKU
    nn as affected by PKU

    Correct probability only: 0.25 / ¼ / 1 in 4 / 25% / 1 :3

    How many chromosomes is there in a human cell (1 mark)?
    46 or 23 pairs

    Name the type of cell division that happened in step two(1 mark).
    Mitosis
    How many divisions does the cell go through to get 16 copies(1 mark)?
    4

    Give one ethical objection to embryo screening (1 mark) .
    - may lead to damage to embryo / may destroy embryos / embryo cannot give consent


    Give one reason in favour of embryo screening (1 mark).
    - prevent having child with the disorder / prevent future suffering / reduce incidence of the disease



    Question 8
    What is a species (2 marks)?
    - A group of organisms
    - That are able to produce fertile offsprings

    How do we use fossils to see how species today have evolved from simple organisms (2 marks)?
    - The structure of the bones
    - The way they were preserved

    The ancestral bird was able to fly. The dinosaurs went extinct 65 million years before. The dinosaurs were meat eaters. Explain how the three different species of flightless birds could have developed to have common characteristics (6 marks).

    1. The ancestral bird populations was separated (by geographical barrier / by land) / were isolated
    2. Genetic variation (in each population) or different/new alleles or mutations occur enabling the bird to adapt
    3. Different environment to adapt
    4. Lack of predators meant that the birds didn't have to use their wings
    5. Natural selection occurs and the favourable characteristics are passed on
    6. Eventually the three types cannot interbreed successfully to produce fertile offspring, thus, a new species id formed with similar characteristics to the other flightless birds.
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    For question 2 I did transect sampling not random sampling, would I still get the marks?
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    (Original post by Katiethom)
    For question 2 I did transect sampling not random sampling, would I still get the marks?
    Since the question didnt specify you potentially might get the marks but i can give you a definite answer
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    (Original post by Katiethom)
    For question 2 I did transect sampling not random sampling, would I still get the marks?
    Hmm, I didn't do random sampling because what's the point of checking an area of soil where the plants grow best if no plants are growing? To be honest I've probably got it wrong but I took the most logical approach to the question I think... Either way I'll get all but one mark on that question then lol.
    Anyway enough rambling on about mine let me help you with yours. Transect sampling, from what I believe, should get the marks. The only doubts I have is that how can one be sure that PH levels in the soil will change across a straight line? I don't know, you'll get marks for all except random sampling part else so the same as me, max loss - 1mark.
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    oml, from this it seems as though i've gotten around 49 marks whilst being harsh
    What dyu guys predict the grade boundries will be though?
    I personally think:
    A* - 46
    A - 37
    B - 28
    C - 19
    D - 12
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    (Original post by Katiethom)
    For question 2 I did transect sampling not random sampling, would I still get the marks?
    As long as you included quadrats in your answer i think its fine. i wrote about transects and quadrats
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    My predictions for the grade boundaries:

    A* - 47/48
    A - 37
    B - 29
    C - 21
    D - 15
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    (Original post by Katiethom)
    For question 2 I did transect sampling not random sampling, would I still get the marks?
    Maybe if you still included all the other points but you may have needed to reference random sampling I stated both ....just in case 🙂
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    (Original post by Coolcatattitude)
    Maybe if you still included all the other points but you may have needed to reference random sampling I stated both ....just in case 🙂
    Me too haha
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    sameeeeee!!
    (Original post by Katiethom)
    For question 2 I did transect sampling not random sampling, would I still get the marks?
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    I believe the question about the location of epithelial cells specifically inside the body.
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    (Original post by 12johnsonA034)
    So i made this from other people's posts combined, if parts aren't correct please let me know
    If there's parts missing tell me haha

    1)
    [Where are epithelial cells found?]
    Epithelial cells can be found in the skin or inside the body as lining around organs (There is more for this)

    [Labelling the parts of the epithelial cell]
    -Cell membrane
    -Cytoplasm
    [What are ribosomes for?]
    -Protein synthesis

    [What is diffusion]
    -Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration to achieve equilibrium

    2) [6 marker on the quadrat]
    ~Random sampling by standing and throwing
    ~Sample different areas
    ~Count twice to remove human error
    ~Repeat investigation to be more valid
    ~Count number of plants in quadrat and test the pH using the measure
    ~Repeat in different areas of pH
    - etc.

    3) [Glucose sports drinks]
    [Why are placebos important?]
    To provide a control to compare it to and so thst the cyclists don't know which they have so they don't act differently thinking that they are under the influence
    [Evaluate the scientists' conclusion - Sports drinks make cyclists perform better] ??
    Agree as the figure showed this, the placebo cyclists weren't able to carry on after 3 hours whereas when given sports drinks they were able to. The cyclists performance was generally much higher when given the glucose drink. taken over a period of a week
    Disagree as it may not help performance because it was tested on a stationary bike at a constant speed which isn't realistic for a race. At around 2 (or 3) hours the glucose fuelled cyclists had a large drop in performance which would not help them in a race. Not enough cyclists tested on, increase the number.

    [Explain how the increased breathing rate, heart rate and concentration of glucose improve the athlete's performance]
    ~Increased breathing rate
    = more oxygen to go into blood to be used for respiration, lets aerobic respiration happen which causes no lactic acid to build up so cyclist can continue to go
    = more opportunity for carbon dioxide to be expelled

    ~Increased heart rate
    = heart beats more so pumps more blood which takes more glucose and oxygen to cells for respiration to release energy so cyclist can be stronger

    ~Concentration of glucose
    = Raise the amount of respiration that can be done with more glucose so more energy can be released which provides the cyclist with more energy

    4) [What starch breaks down into]
    Starch --> Sugars

    [Control variables of starch experiment]
    - Same volume of amylase
    - Same volume of starch
    - Same amount of time given for starch to break down

    [Iodine colour]
    4 minutes = Dark Blue
    6 minutes = Light brown

    [Improvements to the experiment]
    - Repeat at the different pH levels
    - Use smaller intervals of pH between 6-8 to get a more accurate result

    [Suggest what happens to Amylase in pH 3]
    It gets denatured so won't work in these conditions or (possibly) the reaction will slow down even further

    5) [Equation for photosynthesis]
    Carbon dioxide + Water --> Glucose and Oxygen

    [Arbitrary units at 0.04%]
    16 arbitrary units

    [Percentage increase in arbitrary units from 0.04% to 0.08%]
    25% increase
    - Increase from 16 to 20 was 4.
    -One way to work it out is to do (4/16) x 100% = 25%
    -- You use 4 as the increase and 16 as your original number to work out the change.

    [Why farmers shouldn't use more than 0.08%]
    Causes more global warming, costs more, it's no more effective to use over 0.08% as everything above this has the same arbitrary units - therefore it would be a waste

    [Changes the farmer could make to raise photosynthesis]
    -Increase light
    -Increase temperature

    6) [What is an allele?]
    Different forms of the same gene

    [Type of cell division]
    Mitosis

    [How many chromosomes in a human cell?]
    46 chromosomes

    [Number of divisions to get to 16 cells]
    4 divisions

    [What does recessive mean?]
    A non dominant allele that must have two copies for it to show

    [What does heterozygous mean?]
    Two different alleles

    [Ethical disadvantage of embryo screening]
    Could harm the embryo or the mother

    [Advantage of embryo screening]
    Stop the suffering of the child, find out if the child had a genetic disorder

    [Genetic cross diagram]
    You should get NN, Nn, Nn and nn
    - so the possibility of 25% or 1/4

    7)[What is a species?]
    A group of organisms that have common genes and can interbreed to produce fertile offspring

    [How do we use fossils to see how species today have evolved from simple organisms?]
    -Fossil record
    -evidence of previous species
    -can provide comparisons
    -Shows the bones
    -etc.

    [Different species question]
    -Geographical isolation
    -Speciation (can't interbreed)
    -Adaptation and mutation
    -Natural selection
    - Similar characteristics due to few changes as there's reasonably similar environments
    -Dinosaurs not hunting them so no need to fly
    looks quite good
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    Thanks for the UO mark schemeI quiet harshly marked mine and got 37 and what grade would it be roughly
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    (Original post by Oreo101)
    Thanks for the UO mark schemeI quiet harshly marked mine and got 37 and what grade would it be roughly
    Last year a 36 in this paper was an A
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    (Original post by Shadyinkd)
    oml, from this it seems as though i've gotten around 49 marks whilst being harsh
    What dyu guys predict the grade boundries will be though?
    I personally think:
    A* - 46
    A - 37
    B - 28
    C - 19
    D - 12
    These would be amazing!! I've looked at the 2 different unofficial mark schemes on this thread - one gives me 46 and the other 52😂😂 I'm happy with how it went though, and I'm hoping I can at least get an A!🎉
 
 
 
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