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    Does anyone have a good writing structure for Section A - Textual variations and representations?
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    I have just made a revision sheet of all things to cover, I hope this helps

    Grammar Sentence functions- most of the sentences will be declarative if it's an article or most will be imperative if it's an instructive text for example a recipe. You have to say why the author used them kind of sentences because you need to talk about representations so the generic thing to say is that he wants to sound knowledgeable Sentence types- in old texts, they seem to have forgotten that full stops exist and too many commas makes a sentence too long, but the sentences that have lots of commas in tend to be mostly complex with lots of adverbial phrases. The reason for so many complex sentences with adverbials is so that the author can fit everything they want to say into one sentence, this is a printing/writing convention in old texts. Clauses- analysing these will get you the most marks, you have to look at the structure, like how many subordinate clauses are there or how many main clauses and the conjuctions. There might be uses of parallel clauses which are clauses that share a similar structure, for example, I enjoy walking, swimming and running. <<< that’s a parallel clause. Word class- talk about nouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc. Make sure to name the TYPES of these word class eg. concrete noun because that gives you more marks, bumps up a level. You will probably spot a weird preposition in the text, you can say that that’s how people used to use these prepositions in older texts. Try linking these to representations, especially adjectives- what connotations do they give off and how do they represent the writer/ reader/ thing the article is about. Lexis & Semantics With lexis there isn't that much to say because more of the morphology has happened over time so it affects the present day, so things like compounding, affixation, blending etc. comes into question 2 of this section. Latinate lexis- it's easy to spot Latinate lexis, most of it is through how many syllables a word has, so if it has 2 or more I think is Latinate. Affixes and root words also determine the lexis, words that end with '-tion' or '-able' o '-ity' or words that start with 'pre-' or 'post-' or 'co-' or 'dis-' and root words such as '-dict-' and '-duc-' and '-ject-' and '-pel-'. These are all the words to look out for, they add prestige so thats what you can say about representations. These words as well as the complexity of sentences determine the audience the reader is addressing and how he represents them, as educated, poor, wealthy etc. French lexis- French isn't as important, you can say it is prestigious too because of the whole situation with the French invasion but any words that end in '-ure' are French. Archaic lexis- you could write about this, but it's hard to spot archaic lexis because we don't know every word in the English dictionary so it's hard to spot them, but you might see some out dated phrases. Semantic fields- look for specific words that fit together to create an imagine for the audience, you can write about how the audience is represented by this. Also look for jargon and field specific lexis, this mostly presents that the writer is addressing a specialist audience because they use jargon. Discourse With discourse you could simply talk about the structure of the text and how the points of it are set out, so most important to least important. Link it to context of the time so it represents the writers views from most important to least important. Graphology Old texts had many printing conventions of the time like the medial 'S' which looks like an 'f' and plenty of random capitalisations of words and random apostrophes. The most important one to talk about here is the random capitalisation because it could potentially reveal a semantic field if lots of similar words are capitalised or if there is a specific word class capitalised, this would be most present in concrete nouns for emphasis. So you can link it to how it represents the writer, that he's deseprate to get his point across. Look out for layout of the text so headings, subheading, paragraphs etc. And link it to representations. Pragmatics This isn't something you write a paragraph on, it is something that’s unconsciously intertwined in you writing, it is usually the context and how the text reflects the society so this is mostly AO3. Contextual factors can be something like, probably post standardisation, Johnson and all that. Also the text will be most likely be written by a man, women didn’t have the privelege to do anything back them (thank you Emily Davison). Definitely, definitely, definitely talk about AUDIENCE, PURPOSE and GENRE. These are the top 3 things that will get you the AO3 mark. Good luck! x
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    (Original post by the-english_nerd)
    I have just made a revision sheet of all things to cover, I hope this helps

    Grammar Sentence functions- most of the sentences will be declarative if it's an article or most will be imperative if it's an instructive text for example a recipe. You have to say why the author used them kind of sentences because you need to talk about representations so the generic thing to say is that he wants to sound knowledgeable Sentence types- in old texts, they seem to have forgotten that full stops exist and too many commas makes a sentence too long, but the sentences that have lots of commas in tend to be mostly complex with lots of adverbial phrases. The reason for so many complex sentences with adverbials is so that the author can fit everything they want to say into one sentence, this is a printing/writing convention in old texts. Clauses- analysing these will get you the most marks, you have to look at the structure, like how many subordinate clauses are there or how many main clauses and the conjuctions. There might be uses of parallel clauses which are clauses that share a similar structure, for example, I enjoy walking, swimming and running. <<< that’s a parallel clause. Word class- talk about nouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc. Make sure to name the TYPES of these word class eg. concrete noun because that gives you more marks, bumps up a level. You will probably spot a weird preposition in the text, you can say that that’s how people used to use these prepositions in older texts. Try linking these to representations, especially adjectives- what connotations do they give off and how do they represent the writer/ reader/ thing the article is about. Lexis & Semantics With lexis there isn't that much to say because more of the morphology has happened over time so it affects the present day, so things like compounding, affixation, blending etc. comes into question 2 of this section. Latinate lexis- it's easy to spot Latinate lexis, most of it is through how many syllables a word has, so if it has 2 or more I think is Latinate. Affixes and root words also determine the lexis, words that end with '-tion' or '-able' o '-ity' or words that start with 'pre-' or 'post-' or 'co-' or 'dis-' and root words such as '-dict-' and '-duc-' and '-ject-' and '-pel-'. These are all the words to look out for, they add prestige so thats what you can say about representations. These words as well as the complexity of sentences determine the audience the reader is addressing and how he represents them, as educated, poor, wealthy etc. French lexis- French isn't as important, you can say it is prestigious too because of the whole situation with the French invasion but any words that end in '-ure' are French. Archaic lexis- you could write about this, but it's hard to spot archaic lexis because we don't know every word in the English dictionary so it's hard to spot them, but you might see some out dated phrases. Semantic fields- look for specific words that fit together to create an imagine for the audience, you can write about how the audience is represented by this. Also look for jargon and field specific lexis, this mostly presents that the writer is addressing a specialist audience because they use jargon. Discourse With discourse you could simply talk about the structure of the text and how the points of it are set out, so most important to least important. Link it to context of the time so it represents the writers views from most important to least important. Graphology Old texts had many printing conventions of the time like the medial 'S' which looks like an 'f' and plenty of random capitalisations of words and random apostrophes. The most important one to talk about here is the random capitalisation because it could potentially reveal a semantic field if lots of similar words are capitalised or if there is a specific word class capitalised, this would be most present in concrete nouns for emphasis. So you can link it to how it represents the writer, that he's deseprate to get his point across. Look out for layout of the text so headings, subheading, paragraphs etc. And link it to representations. Pragmatics This isn't something you write a paragraph on, it is something that’s unconsciously intertwined in you writing, it is usually the context and how the text reflects the society so this is mostly AO3. Contextual factors can be something like, probably post standardisation, Johnson and all that. Also the text will be most likely be written by a man, women didn’t have the privelege to do anything back them (thank you Emily Davison). Definitely, definitely, definitely talk about AUDIENCE, PURPOSE and GENRE. These are the top 3 things that will get you the AO3 mark. Good luck! x
    Thanks a lot that was very helpful. One question extra question if thats alright, when talking about clauses do you tend to just name drop them while talking bout other features or do you write specifically about them. If you talk about them independently what sort of things would you be saying about them ?
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    (Original post by the-english_nerd)
    I have just made a revision sheet of all things to cover, I hope this helps

    Grammar Sentence functions- most of the sentences will be declarative if it's an article or most will be imperative if it's an instructive text for example a recipe. You have to say why the author used them kind of sentences because you need to talk about representations so the generic thing to say is that he wants to sound knowledgeable Sentence types- in old texts, they seem to have forgotten that full stops exist and too many commas makes a sentence too long, but the sentences that have lots of commas in tend to be mostly complex with lots of adverbial phrases. The reason for so many complex sentences with adverbials is so that the author can fit everything they want to say into one sentence, this is a printing/writing convention in old texts. Clauses- analysing these will get you the most marks, you have to look at the structure, like how many subordinate clauses are there or how many main clauses and the conjuctions. There might be uses of parallel clauses which are clauses that share a similar structure, for example, I enjoy walking, swimming and running. <<< that’s a parallel clause. Word class- talk about nouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc. Make sure to name the TYPES of these word class eg. concrete noun because that gives you more marks, bumps up a level. You will probably spot a weird preposition in the text, you can say that that’s how people used to use these prepositions in older texts. Try linking these to representations, especially adjectives- what connotations do they give off and how do they represent the writer/ reader/ thing the article is about. Lexis & Semantics With lexis there isn't that much to say because more of the morphology has happened over time so it affects the present day, so things like compounding, affixation, blending etc. comes into question 2 of this section. Latinate lexis- it's easy to spot Latinate lexis, most of it is through how many syllables a word has, so if it has 2 or more I think is Latinate. Affixes and root words also determine the lexis, words that end with '-tion' or '-able' o '-ity' or words that start with 'pre-' or 'post-' or 'co-' or 'dis-' and root words such as '-dict-' and '-duc-' and '-ject-' and '-pel-'. These are all the words to look out for, they add prestige so thats what you can say about representations. These words as well as the complexity of sentences determine the audience the reader is addressing and how he represents them, as educated, poor, wealthy etc. French lexis- French isn't as important, you can say it is prestigious too because of the whole situation with the French invasion but any words that end in '-ure' are French. Archaic lexis- you could write about this, but it's hard to spot archaic lexis because we don't know every word in the English dictionary so it's hard to spot them, but you might see some out dated phrases. Semantic fields- look for specific words that fit together to create an imagine for the audience, you can write about how the audience is represented by this. Also look for jargon and field specific lexis, this mostly presents that the writer is addressing a specialist audience because they use jargon. Discourse With discourse you could simply talk about the structure of the text and how the points of it are set out, so most important to least important. Link it to context of the time so it represents the writers views from most important to least important. Graphology Old texts had many printing conventions of the time like the medial 'S' which looks like an 'f' and plenty of random capitalisations of words and random apostrophes. The most important one to talk about here is the random capitalisation because it could potentially reveal a semantic field if lots of similar words are capitalised or if there is a specific word class capitalised, this would be most present in concrete nouns for emphasis. So you can link it to how it represents the writer, that he's deseprate to get his point across. Look out for layout of the text so headings, subheading, paragraphs etc. And link it to representations. Pragmatics This isn't something you write a paragraph on, it is something that’s unconsciously intertwined in you writing, it is usually the context and how the text reflects the society so this is mostly AO3. Contextual factors can be something like, probably post standardisation, Johnson and all that. Also the text will be most likely be written by a man, women didn’t have the privelege to do anything back them (thank you Emily Davison). Definitely, definitely, definitely talk about AUDIENCE, PURPOSE and GENRE. These are the top 3 things that will get you the AO3 mark. Good luck! x

    thanks a lot, great help!
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    (Original post by Dree11)
    Thanks a lot that was very helpful. One question extra question if thats alright, when talking about clauses do you tend to just name drop them while talking bout other features or do you write specifically about them. If you talk about them independently what sort of things would you be saying about them ?
    When talking about clauses I would just name drop them so for example "the subordinate clause..." or "the main clause...", it is really hard so say why writers use clauses, I don't think they thought about using a subordinate conjunction when writing an article but you've studied English for two years, you know the great depths we have to go through!

    The only time I can think of when you would properly analyse a clause is when there is a subordinate conjunction used for comparison or for pointing out an alternate view so for example "Although it was raining, I still took my dog for a walk" so there you could potentially analyse the use of "although" as a subordinate conjunction to say that the writer has wanted the audience to know that he has battled though the negative things. Just writing cringy things like that gets you the marks!

    I hope it helps! x
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    (Original post by the-english_nerd)
    When talking about clauses I would just name drop them so for example "the subordinate clause..." or "the main clause...", it is really hard so say why writers use clauses, I don't think they thought about using a subordinate conjunction when writing an article but you've studied English for two years, you know the great depths we have to go through!

    The only time I can think of when you would properly analyse a clause is when there is a subordinate conjunction used for comparison or for pointing out an alternate view so for example "Although it was raining, I still took my dog for a walk" so there you could potentially analyse the use of "although" as a subordinate conjunction to say that the writer has wanted the audience to know that he has battled though the negative things. Just writing cringy things like that gets you the marks!

    I hope it helps! x
    Is there any chance you could do a similar thing for paper 2?
    My teacher hasn't given us any theories or criticisms! would be greatful for some notes!
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    (Original post by landellsharry)
    Is there any chance you could do a similar thing for paper 2?
    My teacher hasn't given us any theories or criticisms! would be greatful for some notes!
    of course!
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    (Original post by landellsharry)
    Is there any chance you could do a similar thing for paper 2?
    My teacher hasn't given us any theories or criticisms! would be greatful for some notes!


    Language change proceses The language processes are the functional theory which is when language changes according to the needs of its users. Many changes occur due to new inventions and discoveries so words have to either be coined or semantically change Another process is the substratum theory which is about when other languages come into contact with English. This is through immigration or trade or invasion. In 1066 William the conqueror took over Britain and then the whole country had to speak French. When it died down, French influences still existed though different affixes such as '-ure' but the language itself became independent. The lexical gaps process states that there are likely pathways into creating new words, this is from patterns of morphology where verb can be made into an abstract noun eg. Transgress into transgression. This is a pattern that can change word class through bound morphemes The random fluctuation theory is presented by 2 people; Postal who said that language is unpredictable like fashion, it can do what it wants and the changes are random. Hockett said that language change is completely random and random errors lead to language change. Chen's S curve shows the 3 different processes of language change and it states that it is natural. First it is minimal, then it sharply accelerates and then it levels off in time. Baileys wave theory states that language change is a cause of geographical impact, for example he further away you are from a language then the impact of language change will be smaller where as if you live closer to a language it will affect you more Standardisation is a process which was started off by Caxton when he brought over the printing press into Westminster where he chose to print texts in the east midlands dialect due to the fact that it was associated with the most prestige due to culture and the education (Cambridge). He had to choose the punctuation of the text. There were 3 main ones; forward slash was a comma, colon served as a variety of punctuation, punctus was a full stop. In 1755 Samuel Johnson created the first English dictionary which contained 40,000 words in which all had spellings and meanings. In 1782 Robert Lowth wrote a short introduction to the English grammar which was the first grammar book however loads of people criticised his book for being too sloppy with the rules so many other writers wrote their own grammar books. Informalisation and conversationalisation were both named by Norman Fairclough but informallisation was later mentioned by Sharon Goodman. This is the idea that peoples spoken and written mode was become less formal than it used to be. This is due to more relaxed environments at work. Letters are usually a formal form of communication and emails are just an electric version of them so what differs between them? This links to language and technology. Sapir Whorf hypothesis links to the idea that there is linguistic determinism in which language control the way we think. This is also linked to political correctness, this is when words which have negative connotations are not used anymore for example ****** is no longer used because it is offensive and discriminative so people don’t use it anymore, however black people still use that word but write it as it would be said as "*****" in music like rap and it is seen as a sign of respect. Language change Old English- there were many influences from the Germanic languages because of the invasion from Angles, Jutes and Saxons. The language relied deeply on inflections. There was no standardised spelling. 4 different dialects have been formed; Mercian, Northumbrian, Kentish and West Saxon. Middle English- New word order developed, Subject- verb- object. Lots of inflections still and the dialects split into 5- Northern, Southers, Kentish, East midlands and West midlands. Relied on conjuctions. Early Modern English- This is the Caxton era, I have described what he did further up, he started process of standardisation because he brought over the printing press. By the end of the 16th century, there have been guides to spelling published but none that had the meanings of words. Renaissance- this is the time when Literature and Arts were at the peak of popularity, especially mythology from Ancient Greece and Rome, so Aristotle for example. Latin and Greek have added lots of affixes into the English language such as 'anti', 'bi' and '-ism'. There was also an increased trade in which it allowed the English to borrow words. Late Modern English- this is the time known as 'Rise of the Grammarians' which is where grammar books would be written and standardisation really kicks off. The main influentials in this time period (18th century) would be Samuel Johnson who wrote the first English dictionary with about 40,000 words in it (the biggest one at the time) and Robert Lowth who worte a short introduction to the English Grammar, however his work was criticised as being too sloppy so more books were written with more strict rules. This is when the prescriptivists were really born, these were the people who wanted to make the country's language all the same and standard and they told people what they should be writing and talking like. There is also proscriptivism which tells people how they SHOULDN'T talk or write. Most grammar rules came from Latin and Ancient Greek due to the high prestige. Great vowel shift- this lasted between 1400 and 1600. This was set in place in order to reject the French pronunciations. England is taking English back! New pronunciations are: I>> ai = time instead of teem and e>> I = see instead of sae. Grammatical changes- as you know, there used to be 2 forms of the second person pronoun 'you' and 'thou', the difference between is the social class, people would use 'you' when addressing someone with a higher social class, whereas people would use 'thou' when addressing someone of a lower social class. Double negatives were grammatically acceptable. Second and third person inflections 'st' and 'th'. Questions were asked by inverting subject and verb. The syntax was simple. New words & creation- It has been said that Shakespeare created about 1700 new words. There are different processes of how words are created: Borrowing- this is when a language, in this case English, borrows a word from another language, eg. Curry Scientific processes- this refers to the idea that words are invented because of new scientific discoveries Blending- this is when 2 words are blended together to make one word, eg. Camcorder (camera+ recorder) Compounding- similar to blending but instead of using parts of words, you use the full words eg. Laptop (lap+ top) Initialisms- this is when the first letters in a phrase are used to shorten down names of things and you spell out the letters eg. GCSE Acronyms- this is when the first letters of a phrase spell out a words and you pronounce the word eg. OFSTED Clipping- this is when endings of words are not fully said but are known for what they are. Eg. Ad means advertisement Pejoration- this is when a word becomes more negative overtime eg. 'doom' used to mean judgement and now it means death Amelioration- this is when a word becomes more positive eg. 'wicked' used to only mean bad and have connotations of witch craft and now it means that something is good and cool. Eponyms- this is when someone's name is given for a particular thing eg. Alzheimer's disease Back formation- is when you remove an affix to create a new word eg. Removing '-or' from 'editor' so it makes 'edit' Affixation- it is when you add an affix to a word to create a new word eg. Adding '-or' to edit to make it editor Narrowing- this is when a words meaning becomes more specific eg. Meat used to refer to food in general now it refers to flesh. Broadening- this is when a words meaning becomes more general eg. Virus used to only mean a malfunction with health and now it means that your computer is hacked and will stop working, it does have a similar meaning in a way that the computer is sick. Archaism- this is when words are no longer used by a wide population, this is due to new inventions and we simply don’t need them words anymore, they've fallen out of fashion. This links to the functional theory where language adapts to the needs of its users. Eg. Billow is a large sea wave. Change in accent and dialect- communication and mobility play a big part, with communication, language can spread everywhere around the world through telephones, televisions and radios. With mobility, there are lots of different modes of transport which allow overseas travel quickly such as aeroplanes and railways and cars which allow people to freely move around the country. Aitchson's processes of phonological change:
    1. Accent of one group differs from another
    1. Second group influenced by another
    1. New accents emerge
    Growth of vocabulary- Expansion of the British Empire, word like 'thug' came from India in 1810, new inventions, conflicts and war, cultural and social development. Influences of other languages-
    1. 8th - 11th centuries: invasions
    1. 16th - 17th centuries: renaissance
    1. 18th - 19th centuries: colonised countries
    1. 20th century: immigration
    World Englishes Krachu's 3 concentric circles is the idea that there is a centre circle which has native English speakers such as English and Americans. Then the outer circle are the countries which learn English as a second language such as India and Pakistan. Then the expanding circle which is where people learn English as a foreign language such as Japan or Russia. McArthur has 8 main strands of English which are the English & Irish, Canadian, American, Australian & New Zealand, African, South Asian, East Asian and Carribean. All these strands have different countries included in them that have different variations of English such as Carribean English will have a strand of Jamaican which then springs off into Patois and Creole. There are also processes in which language changes in countries; firstly it's the foundation where people bring a language over to a country, then it is the exonormative stabilisation which is when the politically dominant country leads the spread of elite bilingualism, the it s the nativisation where bilingual speakers form new varieties of English, then it is the endonormative stabilisation where new linguistic form is established from the need for nation building and lastly it is the differentiation where internal social group identities gain importance and theres a dialectal differenceMany forms of English are pidginised or Creolised, this is when they are mixed in with the local languages. This is done to preserve identity. The expansion of English may lead to extinction of many languages, there are currently 6,000 in use. This is due to more travel and communication. Creole and Pidgin are formed when 2 or more languages come into contact. Pidgin- formed by convenience Creole- culturally significant, for identity. Advertising- overall 67% of adverts around Europe feature English in it. The country with the most English is Spain with 77% of adverts being in English or having some English in it. American English- spellings differ in American English, the letter 'z' is used in place of 's' in words such as realisation (realization) or reverse spelling such as center instead of centre. There are also semantic differences with words such as flat/ apartment or plaster/ band aid. American culture is the dominant.
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    (Original post by the-english_nerd)
    Language change proceses The language processes are the functional theory which is when language changes according to the needs of its users. Many changes occur due to new inventions and discoveries so words have to either be coined or semantically change Another process is the substratum theory which is about when other languages come into contact with English. This is through immigration or trade or invasion. In 1066 William the conqueror took over Britain and then the whole country had to speak French. When it died down, French influences still existed though different affixes such as '-ure' but the language itself became independent. The lexical gaps process states that there are likely pathways into creating new words, this is from patterns of morphology where verb can be made into an abstract noun eg. Transgress into transgression. This is a pattern that can change word class through bound morphemes The random fluctuation theory is presented by 2 people; Postal who said that language is unpredictable like fashion, it can do what it wants and the changes are random. Hockett said that language change is completely random and random errors lead to language change. Chen's S curve shows the 3 different processes of language change and it states that it is natural. First it is minimal, then it sharply accelerates and then it levels off in time. Baileys wave theory states that language change is a cause of geographical impact, for example he further away you are from a language then the impact of language change will be smaller where as if you live closer to a language it will affect you more Standardisation is a process which was started off by Caxton when he brought over the printing press into Westminster where he chose to print texts in the east midlands dialect due to the fact that it was associated with the most prestige due to culture and the education (Cambridge). He had to choose the punctuation of the text. There were 3 main ones; forward slash was a comma, colon served as a variety of punctuation, punctus was a full stop. In 1755 Samuel Johnson created the first English dictionary which contained 40,000 words in which all had spellings and meanings. In 1782 Robert Lowth wrote a short introduction to the English grammar which was the first grammar book however loads of people criticised his book for being too sloppy with the rules so many other writers wrote their own grammar books. Informalisation and conversationalisation were both named by Norman Fairclough but informallisation was later mentioned by Sharon Goodman. This is the idea that peoples spoken and written mode was become less formal than it used to be. This is due to more relaxed environments at work. Letters are usually a formal form of communication and emails are just an electric version of them so what differs between them? This links to language and technology. Sapir Whorf hypothesis links to the idea that there is linguistic determinism in which language control the way we think. This is also linked to political correctness, this is when words which have negative connotations are not used anymore for example ****** is no longer used because it is offensive and discriminative so people don’t use it anymore, however black people still use that word but write it as it would be said as "*****" in music like rap and it is seen as a sign of respect. Language change Old English- there were many influences from the Germanic languages because of the invasion from Angles, Jutes and Saxons. The language relied deeply on inflections. There was no standardised spelling. 4 different dialects have been formed; Mercian, Northumbrian, Kentish and West Saxon. Middle English- New word order developed, Subject- verb- object. Lots of inflections still and the dialects split into 5- Northern, Southers, Kentish, East midlands and West midlands. Relied on conjuctions. Early Modern English- This is the Caxton era, I have described what he did further up, he started process of standardisation because he brought over the printing press. By the end of the 16th century, there have been guides to spelling published but none that had the meanings of words. Renaissance- this is the time when Literature and Arts were at the peak of popularity, especially mythology from Ancient Greece and Rome, so Aristotle for example. Latin and Greek have added lots of affixes into the English language such as 'anti', 'bi' and '-ism'. There was also an increased trade in which it allowed the English to borrow words. Late Modern English- this is the time known as 'Rise of the Grammarians' which is where grammar books would be written and standardisation really kicks off. The main influentials in this time period (18th century) would be Samuel Johnson who wrote the first English dictionary with about 40,000 words in it (the biggest one at the time) and Robert Lowth who worte a short introduction to the English Grammar, however his work was criticised as being too sloppy so more books were written with more strict rules. This is when the prescriptivists were really born, these were the people who wanted to make the country's language all the same and standard and they told people what they should be writing and talking like. There is also proscriptivism which tells people how they SHOULDN'T talk or write. Most grammar rules came from Latin and Ancient Greek due to the high prestige. Great vowel shift- this lasted between 1400 and 1600. This was set in place in order to reject the French pronunciations. England is taking English back! New pronunciations are: I>> ai = time instead of teem and e>> I = see instead of sae. Grammatical changes- as you know, there used to be 2 forms of the second person pronoun 'you' and 'thou', the difference between is the social class, people would use 'you' when addressing someone with a higher social class, whereas people would use 'thou' when addressing someone of a lower social class. Double negatives were grammatically acceptable. Second and third person inflections 'st' and 'th'. Questions were asked by inverting subject and verb. The syntax was simple. New words & creation- It has been said that Shakespeare created about 1700 new words. There are different processes of how words are created: Borrowing- this is when a language, in this case English, borrows a word from another language, eg. Curry Scientific processes- this refers to the idea that words are invented because of new scientific discoveries Blending- this is when 2 words are blended together to make one word, eg. Camcorder (camera+ recorder) Compounding- similar to blending but instead of using parts of words, you use the full words eg. Laptop (lap+ top) Initialisms- this is when the first letters in a phrase are used to shorten down names of things and you spell out the letters eg. GCSE Acronyms- this is when the first letters of a phrase spell out a words and you pronounce the word eg. OFSTED Clipping- this is when endings of words are not fully said but are known for what they are. Eg. Ad means advertisement Pejoration- this is when a word becomes more negative overtime eg. 'doom' used to mean judgement and now it means death Amelioration- this is when a word becomes more positive eg. 'wicked' used to only mean bad and have connotations of witch craft and now it means that something is good and cool. Eponyms- this is when someone's name is given for a particular thing eg. Alzheimer's disease Back formation- is when you remove an affix to create a new word eg. Removing '-or' from 'editor' so it makes 'edit' Affixation- it is when you add an affix to a word to create a new word eg. Adding '-or' to edit to make it editor Narrowing- this is when a words meaning becomes more specific eg. Meat used to refer to food in general now it refers to flesh. Broadening- this is when a words meaning becomes more general eg. Virus used to only mean a malfunction with health and now it means that your computer is hacked and will stop working, it does have a similar meaning in a way that the computer is sick. Archaism- this is when words are no longer used by a wide population, this is due to new inventions and we simply don’t need them words anymore, they've fallen out of fashion. This links to the functional theory where language adapts to the needs of its users. Eg. Billow is a large sea wave. Change in accent and dialect- communication and mobility play a big part, with communication, language can spread everywhere around the world through telephones, televisions and radios. With mobility, there are lots of different modes of transport which allow overseas travel quickly such as aeroplanes and railways and cars which allow people to freely move around the country. Aitchson's processes of phonological change:
    1. Accent of one group differs from another
    1. Second group influenced by another
    1. New accents emerge

    Growth of vocabulary- Expansion of the British Empire, word like 'thug' came from India in 1810, new inventions, conflicts and war, cultural and social development. Influences of other languages-
    1. 8th - 11th centuries: invasions
    1. 16th - 17th centuries: renaissance
    1. 18th - 19th centuries: colonised countries
    1. 20th century: immigration

    World Englishes Krachu's 3 concentric circles is the idea that there is a centre circle which has native English speakers such as English and Americans. Then the outer circle are the countries which learn English as a second language such as India and Pakistan. Then the expanding circle which is where people learn English as a foreign language such as Japan or Russia. McArthur has 8 main strands of English which are the English & Irish, Canadian, American, Australian & New Zealand, African, South Asian, East Asian and Carribean. All these strands have different countries included in them that have different variations of English such as Carribean English will have a strand of Jamaican which then springs off into Patois and Creole. There are also processes in which language changes in countries; firstly it's the foundation where people bring a language over to a country, then it is the exonormative stabilisation which is when the politically dominant country leads the spread of elite bilingualism, the it s the nativisation where bilingual speakers form new varieties of English, then it is the endonormative stabilisation where new linguistic form is established from the need for nation building and lastly it is the differentiation where internal social group identities gain importance and theres a dialectal differenceMany forms of English are pidginised or Creolised, this is when they are mixed in with the local languages. This is done to preserve identity. The expansion of English may lead to extinction of many languages, there are currently 6,000 in use. This is due to more travel and communication. Creole and Pidgin are formed when 2 or more languages come into contact. Pidgin- formed by convenience Creole- culturally significant, for identity. Advertising- overall 67% of adverts around Europe feature English in it. The country with the most English is Spain with 77% of adverts being in English or having some English in it. American English- spellings differ in American English, the letter 'z' is used in place of 's' in words such as realisation (realization) or reverse spelling such as center instead of centre. There are also semantic differences with words such as flat/ apartment or plaster/ band aid. American culture is the dominant.

    Thank you so much!
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    Amazing resources! thanks very much
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    So my teacher said she predicts ethnicity will come up this year but I literally wouldn’t know what to write for a question on that 😭 any help guys
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    (Original post by the-english_nerd)
    I have just made a revision sheet of all things to cover, I hope this helps

    Grammar Sentence functions- most of the sentences will be declarative if it's an article or most will be imperative if it's an instructive text for example a recipe. You have to say why the author used them kind of sentences because you need to talk about representations so the generic thing to say is that he wants to sound knowledgeable Sentence types- in old texts, they seem to have forgotten that full stops exist and too many commas makes a sentence too long, but the sentences that have lots of commas in tend to be mostly complex with lots of adverbial phrases. The reason for so many complex sentences with adverbials is so that the author can fit everything they want to say into one sentence, this is a printing/writing convention in old texts. Clauses- analysing these will get you the most marks, you have to look at the structure, like how many subordinate clauses are there or how many main clauses and the conjuctions. There might be uses of parallel clauses which are clauses that share a similar structure, for example, I enjoy walking, swimming and running. <<< that’s a parallel clause. Word class- talk about nouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc. Make sure to name the TYPES of these word class eg. concrete noun because that gives you more marks, bumps up a level. You will probably spot a weird preposition in the text, you can say that that’s how people used to use these prepositions in older texts. Try linking these to representations, especially adjectives- what connotations do they give off and how do they represent the writer/ reader/ thing the article is about. Lexis & Semantics With lexis there isn't that much to say because more of the morphology has happened over time so it affects the present day, so things like compounding, affixation, blending etc. comes into question 2 of this section. Latinate lexis- it's easy to spot Latinate lexis, most of it is through how many syllables a word has, so if it has 2 or more I think is Latinate. Affixes and root words also determine the lexis, words that end with '-tion' or '-able' o '-ity' or words that start with 'pre-' or 'post-' or 'co-' or 'dis-' and root words such as '-dict-' and '-duc-' and '-ject-' and '-pel-'. These are all the words to look out for, they add prestige so thats what you can say about representations. These words as well as the complexity of sentences determine the audience the reader is addressing and how he represents them, as educated, poor, wealthy etc. French lexis- French isn't as important, you can say it is prestigious too because of the whole situation with the French invasion but any words that end in '-ure' are French. Archaic lexis- you could write about this, but it's hard to spot archaic lexis because we don't know every word in the English dictionary so it's hard to spot them, but you might see some out dated phrases. Semantic fields- look for specific words that fit together to create an imagine for the audience, you can write about how the audience is represented by this. Also look for jargon and field specific lexis, this mostly presents that the writer is addressing a specialist audience because they use jargon. Discourse With discourse you could simply talk about the structure of the text and how the points of it are set out, so most important to least important. Link it to context of the time so it represents the writers views from most important to least important. Graphology Old texts had many printing conventions of the time like the medial 'S' which looks like an 'f' and plenty of random capitalisations of words and random apostrophes. The most important one to talk about here is the random capitalisation because it could potentially reveal a semantic field if lots of similar words are capitalised or if there is a specific word class capitalised, this would be most present in concrete nouns for emphasis. So you can link it to how it represents the writer, that he's deseprate to get his point across. Look out for layout of the text so headings, subheading, paragraphs etc. And link it to representations. Pragmatics This isn't something you write a paragraph on, it is something that’s unconsciously intertwined in you writing, it is usually the context and how the text reflects the society so this is mostly AO3. Contextual factors can be something like, probably post standardisation, Johnson and all that. Also the text will be most likely be written by a man, women didn’t have the privelege to do anything back them (thank you Emily Davison). Definitely, definitely, definitely talk about AUDIENCE, PURPOSE and GENRE. These are the top 3 things that will get you the AO3 mark. Good luck! x
    You are a top lad and thank you very much for this.
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    (Original post by Znxox)
    So my teacher said she predicts ethnicity will come up this year but I literally wouldn’t know what to write for a question on that 😭 any help guys
    I will actually die if Ethnicity comes up
 
 
 
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