Flow of electrons in producing and using up energy

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nayajuchan
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#1
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I cannot understand how and why the flow of electrons in mitochondria and chloroplasts get involved. How can it convert ATP into ADP and vice versa?

Thank you
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S.G.
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(Original post by nayajuchan)
I cannot understand how and why the flow of electrons in mitochondria and chloroplasts get involved. How can it convert ATP into ADP and vice versa?

Thank you
Do you mean in oxidative phosphorylation?

As the electrons move down the electron transport chain, energy is released. This energy is used to pump protons into the intermembranal space where they build up forming an electrical chemical gradient. The only way they can move down by diffusion is via a channel protein linked to ATPsynthase. The protons move down their electrochemical gradient via ATPsynthase and this phosphoryaltes ADP to form ATP. This is all you need to know at A level.
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bobby147
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In mitochondria,the electrons are dropped off by the electron carriers by the electron transport chain.These electrons move through the proteins in the electron transport chain via redox reactions.These electrons lose energy which is used by proton pumps to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the inter membrane space .
The only for the protons to go from the inter membrane space back into the matrix is through an enzyme called ATP synthase,which uses the energy lost from the protons moving down their electrochemical gradient to phosphorylate ADP into ATP.
For chloroplasts,its similar.Electrons moving between photosystem 11 and 1 lose energy which is used by ATP synthase to phosphorylate ADP into ATP.
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bobby147
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The key idea you need to understand is that when electrons move,they lose energy.This is exploited by biological systems to
phosphorylate ADP.
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nayajuchan
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#5
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Thank you so much for both of answerers!! You saved me from my struggle for this topic
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nayajuchan
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Could you explain to me how protons lose their energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP in more detai? And I cannot apply my little knowledge on electrochemical gradient that properly. The difference of concentration lies between inner mitochondrial membrane and inter membrane state, right??
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vybzkartel
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(Original post by bobby147)
The key idea you need to understand is that when electrons move,they lose energy.This is exploited by biological systems to
phosphorylate ADP.
is it the movement itself that's making them lose energy or is it the oxidation reactions releasing energy?
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S.G.
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(Original post by TheGreatPumpkin)
it's photophosphorylation
In mitochondria it is oxidative phosphorylation, or isn't it?
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TheGreatPumpkin
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Oh ****, yeah you're right. I was thinking of chloroplast
(Original post by SGHD26716)
In mitochondria it is oxidative phosphorylation, or isn't it?
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S.G.
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(Original post by TheGreatPumpkin)
Oh ****, yeah you're right. I was thinking of chloroplast
He mentioned both in the OP. Mitochondria and chloroplasts. Hence the confusion.
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bobby147
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(Original post by vybzkartel)
is it the movement itself that's making them lose energy or is it the oxidation reactions releasing energy?
The movement of the electrons themselves cause them to lose energy .
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bobby147
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(Original post by nayajuchan)
Could you explain to me how protons lose their energy to phosphorylate ADP into ATP in more detai? And I cannot apply my little knowledge on electrochemical gradient that properly. The difference of concentration lies between inner mitochondrial membrane and inter membrane state, right??
This is not on the spec but I guess you really want to understand ,so fair enough.The key to how ATP synthase uses the movement of protons to generate ATP lies in the shape of ATP synthase.
Name:  09_14ATPSynthase.jpg
Views: 111
Size:  75.3 KB
As you can see from the link,it is a molecular mill .When H+ ions move past the rotor part of the enzyme,it causes the rotor to spin.The rotor is connected to a stalk(hence why it is sometimes called a stalked particle )which is connected to a knob which has catalytic sites with ADP and Pi.
The turning of the rotor spins the rod it is connected to,which turns the knob.When the knob turns,it activates the catalytic sites which add Pi to ADP to produce ATP.

To answer your second question,it is between the inter membrane space and the matrix.Can you see why from this picture ?
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...Etc4.svg.png
Hope this helps .
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nayajuchan
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#13
(Original post by bobby147)
This is not on the spec but I guess you really want to understand ,so fair enough.The key to how ATP synthase uses the movement of protons to generate ATP lies in the shape of ATP synthase.
Name:  09_14ATPSynthase.jpg
Views: 111
Size:  75.3 KB
As you can see from the link,it is a molecular mill .When H+ ions move past the rotor part of the enzyme,it causes the rotor to spin.The rotor is connected to a stalk(hence why it is sometimes called a stalked particle )which is connected to a knob which has catalytic sites with ADP and Pi.
The turning of the rotor spins the rod it is connected to,which turns the knob.When the knob turns,it activates the catalytic sites which add Pi to ADP to produce ATP.

To answer your second question,it is between the inter membrane space and the matrix.Can you see why from this picture ?
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...Etc4.svg.png
Hope this helps .
Thanks a lot for letting me completely understand finally!
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