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    Hi I have this question that I'm stuck on

    When a football team plays at their home ground, they are more likely to win. The usual explanations include the home team being used to the pitch or that travelling unsettles the opposing team. The real reason why, in football, home teams always have an advantage is that referees are influenced by the noise from the big home crowd to make decisions in favour of the home team. In an experiment, referees were asked to make judgements from video recordings of matches. One group was played using recordings without sound, the other with. The first group was much less likely than the second to give decisions in favour of the home team. The second group's decisions were close to those given by the referee in the match.

    Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the above argument?

    A Very weak football teams are rarely successful when playing away from home.
    B The most successful football clubs normally have disputed decisions made in their favour.
    C Clubs which have very few supporters perform better at home than away.
    D All football referees have to be trained in understanding the rules of the game.
    E In some sports, such as golf, players on their home ground have no advantage.
    I was between C or E but apparently the answer is B. Why is it not E?
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    (Original post by nwmyname)
    Hi I have this question that I'm stuck on

    When a football team plays at their home ground, they are more likely to win. The usual explanations include the home team being used to the pitch or that travelling unsettles the opposing team. The real reason why, in football, home teams always have an advantage is that referees are influenced by the noise from the big home crowd to make decisions in favour of the home team. In an experiment, referees were asked to make judgements from video recordings of matches. One group was played using recordings without sound, the other with. The first group was much less likely than the second to give decisions in favour of the home team. The second group's decisions were close to those given by the referee in the match.

    Which one of the following, if true, would most weaken the above argument?

    A Very weak football teams are rarely successful when playing away from home.
    B The most successful football clubs normally have disputed decisions made in their favour.
    C Clubs which have very few supporters perform better at home than away.
    D All football referees have to be trained in understanding the rules of the game.
    E In some sports, such as golf, players on their home ground have no advantage.
    I was between C or E but apparently the answer is B. Why is it not E?
    it's not A because of logical irrelevance to the arg and so doesn't weaken it
    it's not C because it points toward home advantage
    it's not D because whether they understand the rules is not the point
    it's not E because it's specifically about football and therefore golf is totally irrelevant
    therefore it has to be B. B weakens the argument because it shows that actually the successful/ famous/ big clubs get disputed decisions and that is what sways refs and that is independent of whether they are home or away hence weakening the claim that it is relevant whether a team is home or away.

    i don't think i phrased this well but I hope it helps. Good luck for tomorrow!
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    (Original post by CymroArFryn)
    it's not A because of logical irrelevance to the arg and so doesn't weaken it
    it's not C because it points toward home advantage
    it's not D because whether they understand the rules is not the point
    it's not E because it's specifically about football and therefore golf is totally irrelevant
    therefore it has to be B. B weakens the argument because it shows that actually the successful/ famous/ big clubs get disputed decisions and that is what sways refs and that is independent of whether they are home or away hence weakening the claim that it is relevant whether a team is home or away.

    i don't think i phrased this well but I hope it helps. Good luck for tomorrow!
    gotcha. Sorry, I tried this one as well and it didn't work:

    What I did was the following:
    I totalled all the initial costs of the separate pizza's.

    1. 12" Margherita = $5.00

    2. 12" Romana = $5.80

    3. 10" Del Bosco = $4.00
    $5.00+$5.80+$4.00=$14.80

    I then realised that with the margherita pizza, the mushroom, onion, pepperoni and spicy beef are free.
    I then saw that the other pizzas also needed Mushroom, Onion, Pepperoni and Spicy Beef toppings but Romana has Mushroom included so the cost was only for Onion, Pepperoni and Spicy beef:
    Each topping was $0.70 for a 12" (create your own pizza) so

    3* $0.70=$2.10"
    which was the total cost of the 12" Romana, including toppings.

    Then, likewise for the Del Bosco, I only needed Onion and Pepperoni so as each topping was $0.50 for a 10" (create your own pizza)

    2 * $0.50 = $1.00

    Margherita at the bottom of the image says can have any additional toppings, so I assumed this was all free.

    $14.80+$2.10+$1.00=$17.90"
    However the answer seems to be D which I'm confused by.
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    The extra toppings aren't free because it's a create your own pizza so each individual topping is 70c so you get 5.8+4.0+5.0+(0.7*4) = 17.6 which is D
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    (Original post by CymroArFryn)
    The extra toppings aren't free because it's a create your own pizza so each individual topping is 70c so you get 5.8+4.0+5.0+(0.7*4) = 17.6 which is D
    I can't read for the life of me sometimes.

    This one is confusing me and I have tried it:
    1. George is making his will. He has a collection of 50 silver boxes. He intends to leave 6 boxes to each of his children and 5 boxes to each of his grandchildren. This will make up the 50 exactly.

      How many children does he have?

      A) 4 , B) 5, C) 6, D) 8, E) 9



    Using equations where x is children and y is grandchildren, I got 6x + 5y = 50

    But I can't seem to find the second equation to solve the question...

    Answer is B.
    Is it because 6x must be a multiple of 10, only possible when x = 5.
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    (Original post by nwmyname)
    I can't read for the life of me sometimes.

    This one is confusing me and I have tried it:
    1. George is making his will. He has a collection of 50 silver boxes. He intends to leave 6 boxes to each of his children and 5 boxes to each of his grandchildren. This will make up the 50 exactly.

      How many children does he have?

      A) 4 , B) 5, C) 6, D) 8, E) 9



    Using equations where x is children and y is grandchildren, I got 6x + 5y = 50

    But I can't seem to find the second equation to solve the question...



    Answer is B.
    Is it because 6x must be a multiple of 10, only possible when x = 5.
    I did it like this :

    5 times anything will always end in 0 or 5 therefore when adding the amount given to grandchildren to the amount given to kids it will have to have the same ending digit ( if 20 given to grandkids 30 will have to be given to kids because that adds to 50) and so the multiples of 6 that <50 are 6,12,18,24,30,36,42,,48 the only one ending in either a 5 or a 0 is 30 , 30/6 = 5 therefore answer is 5 so B
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    (Original post by CymroArFryn)
    I did it like this :

    5 times anything will always end in 0 or 5 therefore when adding the amount given to grandchildren to the amount given to kids it will have to have the same ending digit ( if 20 given to grandkids 30 will have to be given to kids because that adds to 50) and so the multiples of 6 that <50 are 6,12,18,24,30,36,42,,48 the only one ending in either a 5 or a 0 is 30 , 30/6 = 5 therefore answer is 5 so B
    Aha gotcha now i'm feeling good!

    Here's another one,

    Forest fires in Indonesia this year have emitted 1.6 gigatonnes of CO2. To put that in perspective, it has been estimated that the entire world must emit less than 1000 gigatonnes of CO2 every year from now on if we are to avoid dangerous global warming. When forest vegetation burns, the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere can be taken back up again by the plants as they regrow. But in Indonesia it is not only the plants that are burning. Peat that has accumulated over thousands of years is also on fire, releasing buried carbon. Forest fires in Indonesia burn most fiercely in years when the region is drier, as it is this year. Rain arrived in Indonesia recently, and the number of new fires has dropped.

    Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?

    A The forest fires in Indonesia will prevent the achievement of world targets for CO2 emissions.
    B It is likely that some of the CO2 from the fires in Indonesia will remain in the atmosphere.
    C It is unlikely that forest fires will emit as much CO2 next year as they have emitted this year.
    D If forest fires can be prevented or better controlled, dangerous global warming will not occur.

    I can see that A and C are irrelevant to the conclusion, since A is just a point made and C is just an extrapolated point from the paragraph.
    I'm confused though why the conclusion would be B and not D.
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    (Original post by nwmyname)
    Aha gotcha now i'm feeling good!

    Here's another one,

    Forest fires in Indonesia this year have emitted 1.6 gigatonnes of CO2. To put that in perspective, it has been estimated that the entire world must emit less than 1000 gigatonnes of CO2 every year from now on if we are to avoid dangerous global warming. When forest vegetation burns, the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere can be taken back up again by the plants as they regrow. But in Indonesia it is not only the plants that are burning. Peat that has accumulated over thousands of years is also on fire, releasing buried carbon. Forest fires in Indonesia burn most fiercely in years when the region is drier, as it is this year. Rain arrived in Indonesia recently, and the number of new fires has dropped.

    Which one of the following is a conclusion that can be drawn from the above passage?

    A The forest fires in Indonesia will prevent the achievement of world targets for CO2 emissions.
    B It is likely that some of the CO2 from the fires in Indonesia will remain in the atmosphere.
    C It is unlikely that forest fires will emit as much CO2 next year as they have emitted this year.
    D If forest fires can be prevented or better controlled, dangerous global warming will not occur.

    I can see that A and C are irrelevant to the conclusion, since A is just a point made and C is just an extrapolated point from the paragraph.
    I'm confused though why the conclusion would be B and not D.
    D goes further than the passage. D says "if we stop forest fires, global warming won't happen" when the passage is simply saying that forest fires contribute. so it's logical irrelevance
    A also goes further than the passage by saying this one country will stop everything which is a logical leap and so is a fallacy
    it is not C because it generalises Indonesia to all forest fires which is not true.

    therefore has to be B. the premises entail that this conclusion is true because they say it's carbon neutral however it has buried carbon therefore that necessitates that some stays in the atmosphere. B is the only conclusion that the premises entail
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    (Original post by CymroArFryn)
    D goes further than the passage. D says "if we stop forest fires, global warming won't happen" when the passage is simply saying that forest fires contribute. so it's logical irrelevance
    A also goes further than the passage by saying this one country will stop everything which is a logical leap and so is a fallacy
    it is not C because it generalises Indonesia to all forest fires which is not true.

    therefore has to be B. the premises entail that this conclusion is true because they say it's carbon neutral however it has buried carbon therefore that necessitates that some stays in the atmosphere. B is the only conclusion that the premises entail
    Yeah now that makes sense. All the wrong answers are basically fallacies.
    Ok, what about this one.

    Over-prescription of antibiotics by doctors who respond to patients’ demands has raised the drug resistance of harmful bacteria. Drug-resistant bacteria can make routine surgery and minor cuts fatal if infections take hold. We could introduce penalties for doctors who over-prescribe, but this would not be enough. Given the scale and escalation of antibiotic resistance, we need to discover a new class of antibiotics. In the past, pharmaceutical companies have not regarded research on antibiotics as potentially profitable. Governments should give financial incentives to the pharmaceutical industry to intensify work on finding new classes of antibiotics which could be kept in reserve for emergencies such as a global epidemic. This would make it more attractive for pharmaceutical companies to carry out the necessary research.

    Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the above argument?

    A Governments will not allow routine sales of a new antibiotic, except in an emergency.
    B In some countries antibiotics can be bought without a prescription from a doctor.
    C Antibiotics are useless against viruses and often unnecessary against mild bacterial infections.
    D Use of antibiotics in livestock production has increased bacterial resistance to several antibiotics.

    Now, I thought B and C were rather irrelevant to the argument. Left between A and D, I chose D but the answer is A.
 
 
 
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