Middlechild123
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How do you know what type of structure and bonding an element has?

E.g give the structure and bonding of Na
Thank you!
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MezmorisedPotato
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Look at Na in the periodic table. Where is it? What part is it in? What type of element is it? Is it non metal or metal? How does that dictate its bonding?
Once you identify the obvious from that, then you can talk about why it is that particular structure and what it is composed off.
Good luck, please ask more if you are not sure
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Middlechild123
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it's a group 1 metal so it can form ionic bonds? How can I tell it's structure? Thank you for you help so far so is it a giant ionic or simple ionic?
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MezmorisedPotato
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(Original post by Middlechild123)
it's a group 1 metal so it can form ionic bonds? How can I tell it's structure? Thank you for you help so far so is it a giant ionic or simple ionic?
An ionic bond can forms positive and negative ion as one loses an electron and the other gains electrons. This is between metals and non metals.
They key word for bonding in Na is "metal"
So how could this relate to the bonding?
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Middlechild123
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So it's metallic? How can I actually tell for other elements?
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Sodium has an atomic no of 11 and a mass no of 23. This tells you that a SODIUM ATOM has 11 protons, 12 neutrons and 11 electrons. (same no of protons (+ve) and electrons (-ve) so no charge - remember this way: any element that is in ATOMIC state and NOT in IONIC state should have no net charge (keeping it simple) (imagine ]v simply] that if you touch an iron key, you do not get an electric shock because the iron is made of atoms here NOT charged IONS). It is useful to remember that the innermost shell in an atom has two electrons, the next one out has 8, etc.

So innermost shell of Na atom has 2, next shell 8 (with 11 electrons total; that leaves 1 in outermost shell (hence Group 1 metal).

Metals (except transition metals) will have up to three electrons in outer shell - they will lose 1-3 from the outer shell e.g. Ca [calcium ATOM] will lose 2 electrons to give Ca++ [calcium ION]; Al [aluminium ATOM] will lose 3 electrons to give Al+++ [aluminium ION]) - a complete 8 in outer shell gives stability.

When sodium atom becomes an ion, it is easier for it to lose one electron than to gain 7 electrons (obviously) to achieve stable 8.

Also sodium is the 2nd smallest metal in Group 1 (after Lithium: atomic no 3) so the electrons are closer to +ve protons in the nucleus, so [unlikes attract - think of girl and boy) so Na is less reactive than e.g. Caesium (also Group 1 metal - much larger) i.e. it is more difficult for electron to "break away" from positive nucleus attraction [protons].

WHEN Na+ ION forms by loss of an electron, there is a net excess of one +ve charge left (one more proton = 11 than electrons = 10 now) so Na+ AND NOT Na- [sounds stupid, but trying to make it simple for you!] - opposite for -ve ions = anions e.g. chlorine atom gains an electron to make Cl- [non-metal])..

Hope this makes it "easy peasy lemon squeezy)

M (private tutor [science])
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Middlechild123
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so sodium is metallic with metallic bonding?
Thanks for all the help so far
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Vanilla Twilight
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Groups 1,2 and 3: Metallic
Group 4: Covalent/macromolecular
Groups 5,6 and 7: Simple molecular
Group 0: Exist as free atoms that don't form compounds
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Middlechild123
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thank you
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