Evaluate research into coding, capacity, and duration of long term memory

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unknown_person
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What studies can I use?
I only know Bahrick's study - duration in LTM

Can anyone suggest a study for coding and capacity for LTM?

Thanks
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jbea
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Baddeley also conducted a study into conducted a study into the coding in the short and long-term memory. The procedure used was to repeat four different types of words in four different occurrences to participants, who were then subsequently asked to recall them. The four different types of words were: acoustically similar words (such as hair and fair) or acoustically dissimilar( hair,wing), and semantically similar words( large, big) or dissimilar (large, hot). Baddelely discovered that immediate recall was worse with acoustically similar words, therefore the STM codes information acoustically. Another discovery was that recall after 20 minutes was worse with semantically similar words, therefore the LTM is semantically coded. However, a problem with this study is that it didn’t use meaningful material; the words used had no meaning to participants, and when processing more meaningful information people may use semantic coding even for STM tasks. This means the results have limited application, and therefore cannot be generalised.
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unknown_person
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(Original post by jbea)
Baddeley also conducted a study into conducted a study into the coding in the short and long-term memory. The procedure used was to repeat four different types of words in four different occurrences to participants, who were then subsequently asked to recall them. The four different types of words were: acoustically similar words (such as hair and fair) or acoustically dissimilar( hair,wing), and semantically similar words( large, big) or dissimilar (large, hot). Baddelely discovered that immediate recall was worse with acoustically similar words, therefore the STM codes information acoustically. Another discovery was that recall after 20 minutes was worse with semantically similar words, therefore the LTM is semantically coded. However, a problem with this study is that it didn’t use meaningful material; the words used had no meaning to participants, and when processing more meaningful information people may use semantic coding even for STM tasks. This means the results have limited application, and therefore cannot be generalised.
Thanks !
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2georgiadavies
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Here is just a little draft that I would personally use if I had a 16 marker at A Level to answer the question "Describe and evaluate research into coding, capacity, and duration of either short-term memory or long-term memory (I have chosen STM as I find that there is a lot of information). I WILL INCLUDE A03 IN NEXT COMMENT

Short-term memory has been shown to be coded acoustically. This was represented in Baddely's study in 1966. He got participants to learn one list of words and then they were given another list of word that altered in the material. He found that participants struggled and had the worse immediate recall with words that were acoustically similar.

Jacob discovered more about short-term memory. He found, using the digit span, that participants could recall an average of 7.3 letters and 9.3 digits immediately after they were presented. Miller later went in and further developed the definition of the capacity of short-short term memory. He stated that the span of STM was around 7 plus or minus 2. He took notice of the fact that the number 7 regularly occurred in everyday life. For instance, there are 7 days in a week, 7 deadly sins and 7 notes on the musical scale. In addition to this, he stated that the capacity of STM can be expanded through the use of chunking (a method of grouping sets of digits/letters into meaningful units). I WOULD VIEW SOME VIDEOS ON PROFESSIONALS THAT CAN DO THIS ON YOUTUBE AS IT IS VERY FASCINATING!

Peterson and Peterson conducted research into the duration of short-term memory. They found that students recalled about 80% of the nonsense syllables they were given with a 3-second interval but at 18 seconds this number dropped significantly to just 3%, thus suggesting that short-term memory has a limited duration of around 18-30 seconds!
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2georgiadavies
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A03

1.
One weakness of research relating to STM is that it often lacks in ecological validity. This is due to the fact that artificial, controlled conditions are regularly used within experiments. The situation was set up to be that of a situation that is unlikely to occur in our everyday lives and therefore there must be caution when generalising this to everyday situations. This is particularly applicable to Peterson and Peterson's research as they used nonsense syllables which is an example of an artificial stimulus. They lack meaning and it would, therefore, be foolish to apply this research to other forms of STM. However, this research is not completely irrelevant as there are still memories that do involve relatively meaningless stimuli, such as recalling phone numbers and remembering codes.

2.
Another limitation of the research relating to memory is that other psychologists have contradicting ideas and findings. For instance, Cowman suggests that the capacity of STM was in fact 4 chunks no the 7 +/- 2 that Miller stated. This implies that the lower end of Miller's magic number may be more accurate and appropriate to use that 7. Therefore, the capacity may have been overstated.

3.
Another criticism with some of the research (particularly the older research) is that it lacked control. For example, Jacob's study conducted in 1887 is likely to not have adequate control over extraneous variables, such as participant distraction. This is likely to have impacted on their accuracy of recall and ultimately the results drawn as they were unable to perform as well as they may have without distraction. However, the research results have been shown to be reflected in replica research.
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unknown_person
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(Original post by 2georgiadavies)
A03

1.
One weakness of research relating to STM is that it often lacks in ecological validity. This is due to the fact that artificial, controlled conditions are regularly used within experiments. The situation was set up to be that of a situation that is unlikely to occur in our everyday lives and therefore there must be caution when generalising this to everyday situations. This is particularly applicable to Peterson and Peterson's research as they used nonsense syllables which is an example of an artificial stimulus. They lack meaning and it would, therefore, be foolish to apply this research to other forms of STM. However, this research is not completely irrelevant as there are still memories that do involve relatively meaningless stimuli, such as recalling phone numbers and remembering codes.

2.
Another limitation of the research relating to memory is that other psychologists have contradicting ideas and findings. For instance, Cowman suggests that the capacity of STM was in fact 4 chunks no the 7 +/- 2 that Miller stated. This implies that the lower end of Miller's magic number may be more accurate and appropriate to use that 7. Therefore, the capacity may have been overstated.

3.
Another criticism with some of the research (particularly the older research) is that it lacked control. For example, Jacob's study conducted in 1887 is likely to not have adequate control over extraneous variables, such as participant distraction. This is likely to have impacted on their accuracy of recall and ultimately the results drawn as they were unable to perform as well as they may have without distraction. However, the research results have been shown to be reflected in replica research.
Thankyou very much!
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