(Original post by 75321824)
Is this right?:
HIV enters through bodily fluids
Viral glycoproteins attach themselves to CD4 receptors on the membrane of T-helper cells
HIV enters the cell by endocytosis
It releases reverse transcriptase and RNA
The reverse transcriptase copies single stranded RNA into double stranded DNA
The host cell thinks this is its own DNA and makes copies of the HIV DNA in its nucleus
Pls correct anything which is wrong. Thank you
It looks correct. It's a very brief outline but looks correct to me.
Gp120 (a glycoprotein) on the surface of HIV binds to CD4 on the surface of CD4+
T cells and macrophages. Secondly, gp120 binds to CCR5 or CXCR4, a coreceptor also expressed by macrophages and CD4+
T cells - this causes the lipid envelope to fuse with the plasma membrane, allowing HIV to enter the host cell via endocytosis. Once inside the host cell, HIV releases HIV-1 protease, DNA integrase, reverse transcriptase as well as the viral RNA into the cytoplasm. Reverse transcriptase creates double-stranded DNA from the RNA (this is very error prone, which is why HIV has a very high mutation rate). The dsDNA then enters the nucleus and is integrated into the host genome using DNA integrase. The host cell now transcribes the provirus as if it were self, and produces viral RNA. Some of this acts as mRNA, and is translated into viral proteins (such as reverse transcriptase, integrase, gp120, HIV-1 protease, as well as the capsid) while some will become the viral RNA within new virions. The viral RNA and proteins then move to the plasma membrane where they bud from the cell, taking some of the plasma membrane with it forming the lipid envelope containing gp120. However, the budded virion is still immature and non-infectious. HIV-1 protease must first break down a large polyprotein into the capsid and matrix proteins. After this, the budded virion is mature and can infect other cells.