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Can someone tell me the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation
Medic Mind
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Allopatric speciation is commonly referred to as geographical speciation, as this is when a population is separated by a physical/geographical barrier, resulting in the formation of genetically distinct species as a result. When populations become separated, gene flow between them ceases. Over time, the populations may become genetically different in response to the natural selection imposed by their different environments. If the populations are relatively small, they may experience a founder effect: the populations may have contained different allelic frequencies when they were separated. Selection and genetic drift will act differently on these two different genetic backgrounds, creating genetic differences between the two new species.

Sympatric speciation is speciation that occurs without physical separation of members of the population, as often is due to a reproductive separation of the population. This speciation phenomenon most commonly occurs through polyploidy, in which an offspring or group of offspring will be produced with twice the normal number of chromosomes. Where a normal individual has two copies of each chromosome (diploidy), these offspring may have four copies (tetraploidy). A tetraploid individual cannot mate with a diploid individual, creating reproductive isolation.
Sympatric speciation is rare. It occurs more often among plants than animals, since it is so much easier for plants to self-fertilize than it is for animals. A tetraploidy plant can fertilize itself and create offspring. For a tetraploidy animal to reproduce, it must find another animal of the same species but of opposite sex that has also randomly undergone polyploidy.

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