Kiko M
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Hi, I'm stuck trying to explain how the alkali metals react with water, chlorine and oxygen. Could someone please describe the reactions?
Thank you!
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Mikos
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Reaction with water:
react vigorously
produce hydrogen (gas)
Chlorine:
reacts vigorously to produce white metal chloride salts
oxygen:
reacts w/ oxygen to form a metal oxide. The type of metal oxide will depend on the metal used, e.g. lithium+oxygen->lithium oxide.

ask if you need anything else
P.s sorry this is set out so poorly, I'm so tired rn haha
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Kiko M
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(Original post by Mikos)
Reaction with water:
react vigorously
produce hydrogen (gas)
Chlorine:
reacts vigorously to produce white metal chloride salts
oxygen:
reacts w/ oxygen to form a metal oxide. The type of metal oxide will depend on the metal used, e.g. lithium+oxygen->lithium oxide.

ask if you need anything else
P.s sorry this is set out so poorly, I'm so tired rn haha
I have a question, for the reaction with water could I just say that they all react vigorously because I read elsewhere that they react more vigorously as they go down the group, I just don't know how to word it and thank you so much!
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Mikos
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(Original post by Kiko M)
I have a question, for the reaction with water could I just say that they all react vigorously because I read elsewhere that they react more vigorously as they go down the group, I just don't know how to word it and thank you so much!
You're welcome
Yeah, group 1 metals are highly reactive. This is because group 1 metals have 1 electron, and in ionic bonding the metal will lose the electron from its outer shell to form an ionic compound. It is easier to lose 1 electron than 2 or 3, hence why they are so reactive.

Yeah, they do get more reactive as they go down the table. Have you been taught about the electron shells yet (I'm assuming you're in year 10)? Basically, as you go down the group, the atom gets larger, so there are more electrons, which means more outer energy levels (or shells, if you prefer to call them that). This means the outer shell (this is the energy level from which the electrons are lost) is further away from the nucleus. As you may know, electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively charged. The nucleus of an atom contains neutrons (charge 0) and protons (charge 1), leaving them with an overall positive charge. You may already know that opposite charges attract, so that is why the electrons orbit the nucleus; they have forces of attraction.

So, imagine that if the outer shell electrons are further away from this nucleus, the forces of attraction get weaker. This means the electrons on the outer shell are more easily lost, so they are more reactive.

If there's anything you're struggling to understand, please ask I understand this is a lot to digest at once haha, the way I've written it is probably a bit convoluted tbh, and dw chemistry can take a little while to wrap your head around, but once it clicks, it becomes super easy
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Kiko M
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(Original post by Mikos)
You're welcome
Yeah, group 1 metals are highly reactive. This is because group 1 metals have 1 electron, and in ionic bonding the metal will lose the electron from its outer shell to form an ionic compound. It is easier to lose 1 electron than 2 or 3, hence why they are so reactive.

Yeah, they do get more reactive as they go down the table. Have you been taught about the electron shells yet (I'm assuming you're in year 10)? Basically, as you go down the group, the atom gets larger, so there are more electrons, which means more outer energy levels (or shells, if you prefer to call them that). This means the outer shell (this is the energy level from which the electrons are lost) is further away from the nucleus. As you may know, electrons are negatively charged and protons are positively charged. The nucleus of an atom contains neutrons (charge 0) and protons (charge 1), leaving them with an overall positive charge. You may already know that opposite charges attract, so that is why the electrons orbit the nucleus; they have forces of attraction.

So, imagine that if the outer shell electrons are further away from this nucleus, the forces of attraction get weaker. This means the electrons on the outer shell are more easily lost, so they are more reactive.

If there's anything you're struggling to understand, please ask I understand this is a lot to digest at once haha, the way I've written it is probably a bit convoluted tbh, and dw chemistry can take a little while to wrap your head around, but once it clicks, it becomes super easy

Wow thank you so so much!
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Mikos
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okay wait, I found that I just made a minor mistake haha- I said group 1 metals have only 1 electron, I meant that they have 1 electron on their outer shell that's what a lack of sleep does to you haha! By the way, have you looked at the CGP revision guides for chemistry? I use them personally and they're really helpful
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expertguidance
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Group 1 – the alkali metals:
  • All group 1 metals have 1 electron in the outer shell. This makes them very reactive, as they bond by losing an electron.
  • Reactivity increases down the group as the 1 outer electron loses more easily, because it’s further from the nucleus.

Alkali Metal with Halogens :

The alkali metals also react vigorously with non-metals such as chlorine gas. They produce metal chlorides, which are white solids. The metal chlorides all dissolve readily in water to form colorless solutions.
The reactions get more and more vigorous as you go down the group. That is because it becomes easier to lose the single electron in the outer shell to form ions with a 1+ charge.
Sodium + chlorine → sodium chloride
2Na(s) + Cl₂(g) → 2NaCl(s)
They react in a similar way with fluorine, bromide, and iodine. All of these ionic compounds of the alkali metals and non-metals are also white and dissolve easily in water. The solutions formed are all colourless.

Alkali Metals with Water

Group 1 elements reaction with water to metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

ImageImage

Alkali Metal with Oxygen

Group 1 elements react with oxygen to form Metal oxides and the general formulae of group 1 oxides is M2O.

I hope you find this information useful. If you need any further information then please let me know.
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