Need help answering this 16 marker on attachment

Watch
tee3434
Badges: 15
Rep:
?
#1
Report Thread starter 3 years ago
#1
Describe and evaluate learning theory as an explanation for attachment
(16 MARKER)

can someone help me plan the answer to this question thanks
0
reply
basicmacaroon
Badges: 11
Rep:
?
#2
Report 3 years ago
#2
(Original post by tee3434)
Describe and evaluate learning theory as an explanation for attachment
(16 MARKER)

can someone help me plan the answer to this question thanks
Hi. As with all 16 markers, you will need around 150 words of AO1. Go for quality rather then quantity so don't write everything you know, just a few things in detail. Maybe you could outline how each type of conditioning helps form and maintain attachments.

Next you need some evaluation. I find three detailed points or four more general ones are good. Try to balance them out between strengths and limitations although in this case there are mostly just limitations. PEEL your evaluation points too. Point Evidence Explanation Link (back to question).

So for example say that there is challenging research against learning theory.
Then you would say what this is. e.g harlow found that monkeys...
Then explain why this is a limitation/ goes against the theory.
Link this back to what the question wants e.g. "social learning theory may not be entirely accurate because research shows..."

If any of this confuses you feel free to ask me about it.
0
reply
tee3434
Badges: 15
Rep:
?
#3
Report Thread starter 3 years ago
#3
CAN SOMEONE MARK THIS AND TELL ME WHAT MARK I'D GET. I REALLY STRUGGLED WITH THIS QUESTION IT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF SOMEONE COULD TELL ME WHAT I NEED TO DO IMPROVE OR GET FULL MARKS. THANKS

Describe and evaluate learning theory as an explanation for attachment
(16 MARKER)


The learning theory suggests that all behaviour is learned rather than inborn. When infants are born they are ‘blank slates’ and everything they become can be explained in terms of the experience they have. Dollard and Miller (1950) proposed that the learning theory can explain caregiver-infant attachment, learning theory demonstrates that attachment is learned through classical or operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning through association, a neutral stimulus is constantly paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response. Operant conditioning is learning through reinforcement if the behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in future.

One study that contradicts the learning theory of attachment is by Schaffer and Emerson (1964). They found that babies formed a primary attachment to their biological mother even if other carers did most of the feeding. This suggests that food may not be the main factor of attachment, this is a weakness as it goes against the Learning theory that infants are more likely to form attachments with adults who meet their physical needs. However, one issue with Schaffer and Emerson’s study is that it lacks population validity as all ppts were from Glasgow and of working class so cannot be generalised to the whole population. Therefore, this shows that the learning theory may not entirely be accurate as there is strong evidence that thereother factors other than feeding for attachment but has low reliability and contains cultural bias.

Another study against the learning theory is Lorenz’s geese study (1952), Lorenz’s study demonstrated that geese imprinted before they were fed and maintained these attachments regardless who fed them. This means that infants attach to the first moving object they see after birth, this contradicts the learning theory as it suggests that attachment is innate. However, one weakness of Lorenz’s study is that anthropomorphism is evident. He carried out his study on animals, this is an issue because humans and animals are physiological different thus the way a infant develops an attachment with their primary caregiver could be very different to the way a geese develops an attachment with their primary giver this means the findings cannot be generalised. Therefore this shows that the learning theory is inaccurate as there is adequate studies that show feeding isn’t the main factor of attachment however most of these have been carried out on animals which suggests that the findings lack generalisability.
0
reply
basicmacaroon
Badges: 11
Rep:
?
#4
Report 3 years ago
#4
(Original post by tee3434)
CAN SOMEONE MARK THIS AND TELL ME WHAT MARK I'D GET. I REALLY STRUGGLED WITH THIS QUESTION IT WOULD BE HELPFUL IF SOMEONE COULD TELL ME WHAT I NEED TO DO IMPROVE OR GET FULL MARKS. THANKS

Describe and evaluate learning theory as an explanation for attachment
(16 MARKER)

The learning theory suggests that all behaviour is learned rather than inborn. When infants are born they are ‘blank slates’ and everything they become can be explained in terms of the experience they have. Dollard and Miller (1950) proposed that the learning theory can explain caregiver-infant attachment, learning theory demonstrates that attachment is learned through classical or operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is learning through association, a neutral stimulus is constantly paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response. Operant conditioning is learning through reinforcement if the behaviour is followed by a desirable consequence then that behaviour is more likely to occur again in future.

One study that contradicts the learning theory of attachment is by Schaffer and Emerson (1964). They found that babies formed a primary attachment to their biological mother even if other carers did most of the feeding. This suggests that food may not be the main factor of attachment, this is a weakness as it goes against the Learning theory that infants are more likely to form attachments with adults who meet their physical needs. However, one issue with Schaffer and Emerson’s study is that it lacks population validity as all ppts were from Glasgow and of working class so cannot be generalised to the whole population. Therefore, this shows that the learning theory may not entirely be accurate as there is strong evidence that thereother factors other than feeding for attachment but has low reliability and contains cultural bias.

Another study against the learning theory is Lorenz’s geese study (1952), Lorenz’s study demonstrated that geese imprinted before they were fed and maintained these attachments regardless who fed them. This means that infants attach to the first moving object they see after birth, this contradicts the learning theory as it suggests that attachment is innate. However, one weakness of Lorenz’s study is that anthropomorphism is evident. He carried out his study on animals, this is an issue because humans and animals are physiological different thus the way a infant develops an attachment with their primary caregiver could be very different to the way a geese develops an attachment with their primary giver this means the findings cannot be generalised. Therefore this shows that the learning theory is inaccurate as there is adequate studies that show feeding isn’t the main factor of attachment however most of these have been carried out on animals which suggests that the findings lack generalisability.
I'm not an examiner so don't rely completely on my opinion but I think this would get around 10-12 marks. Your two evaluation points are really good. But adding another one if you can think of it wont hurt. You need to make sure that you relate the study you mention in your first paragraph directly to the learning theory of attachment. For example, the infant is learning to associate the neutral stimulus- the caregiver, with the unconditioned stimulus of food. Which produces the response of feeling full and happy. Food given by the caregiver may also act as a negative reinforcement.

To say you struggled on this answer, you still did really well I think. Do make sure to check with your teacher.
0
reply
X

Quick Reply

Attached files
Write a reply...
Reply
new posts
Back
to top
Latest
My Feed

See more of what you like on
The Student Room

You can personalise what you see on TSR. Tell us a little about yourself to get started.

Personalise

How do you prefer to get careers advice?

I like to speak to my friends and family (6)
8.45%
I like to do my own research online using careers specific websites (50)
70.42%
I like speaking to the careers advisors at school, college or uni (10)
14.08%
I prefer to listen watch videos or listen to podcasts of people in my chosen career (4)
5.63%
Something else (let us know in the thread) (1)
1.41%

Watched Threads

View All