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Pentoses: (e.g. ribose, ribulose), used in the synthesis of nucleic acids (RNA and DNA), co-enzymes (NAD, NADP, FAD) and ATP.
Hexoses: (e.g. glucose, fructose), used as a source of energy in respiration and as building blocks for larger molecules.
All but one carbon atom have an alcohol (OH) group attached. The remaining carbon atom has an aldehyde or ketone group attached."