Please can someone help????
I am studying AQA A Level Sociology and have been set revision on concepts - I'm fine with the text book definitions and putting these into my own words but I'm struggling finding strengths and weaknesses for each one - apparently I need two for each concept.
Our task that has been set is:
For each concept I must:
a. define the term
b. provide an explanation / example
c. identify and explain two strengths
d. identify and explain two criticisms
e. link to at least one other concept or
f. link to at least one theory
If anyone can help that would be great - I have already made a start but I'm stumped on the halo effect and a couple of others.
Explain and effect
Labelling- attach a meaning or definition to someone
Interactionalists are interested in how people attach labels to one another and the effects that this has on those who are labelled
Teachers -label the ‘ideal pupil’: white, middle class and an ability of academic success
Working class students were labelled as failures or disruptive. As a result, middle class students having a better chance of succeeding if teachers have higher expectations of them resulting in more time spent helping them
Working class pupils will feel demotivated and begin to put in less effort into their school work- lead to the self-fulfilling prophecy and impact students negatively by causing low self-esteem/low confidence and ultimately underachievement
Halo effect: the label applied based on first impressions to a student which may be favourable or unfavourable.
A teacher labelling a student as hardworking based on their initial interactions
Rist- Primary school teacher used information from a child’s home background to put them in separate groups, the working-class ones were sat furthest away with fewer books and less opportunities.
Keddie- although curriculum is the same, teachers give positively labelled pupils more abstract knowledge
Gewirtz- study of London secondary schools he found out the MC can also afford the greater travel costs and afford to live in areas with the best schools.
Marxists- labels stem from the fact teachers work in a system that reproduces class divisions.
Mary Fuller (1984)- Study in London school and working class black girls were placed in low streams but were high achievers