Global atmospheric circulation and Milankovitch cycle HELP AQA GEOGRAPHY

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gcses2018
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Can anyone give me a quick summary of the following topics please:
Global atmospheric circulation and Milankovitch cycle
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bean101
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I do Scottish highers so idk how much you'll need to know for aqa but anyways

Oops wrote about oceanic circulation instead! will edit hahahaa

Atmospheric circulation would probably be asked for 4 marks in a higher exam, whereas Milankovitch theory would only be asked for 1 mark as part of a climate change answer so sorry my answer isn't really in depth at all hahaha

Milankovitch theory - the earths elliptical orbit around the sun means that at certain times of the year the earth can be much closer to the sun and therefore receive more of the Suns energy. Changes in the tilt of the earth also affects the amount of insolation the earth receives. The greater the tilt, the closer some areas are to the sun and therefore receive more energy eg the earths polar regions.

Hope this helps
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gcses2018
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(Original post by bean101)
I do Scottish highers so idk how much you'll need to know for aqa but anyways

Oceanic circulation:
- Equatorial waters are warmer due to more insolation
- polar waters are colder and sink and flow along ocean floor towards equator
- this displaces upwards lighter, warmer Equatorial waters to surface of ocean as they flow towards the poles
- therefore general movement of warm Equatorial water to poles and cold polar water to the equator, in other words from areas of surplus to deficit

This is basically it but you can add more information to bulk up an answer:
- ocean currents follow loops or gyres
- the movement of the gulf stream (Equatorial water) across the North Atlantic is aided by surface winds which drag the water along with them.
- this current is also deflected in a NE direction towards the UK because the Newfoundland area of Canada interrupts the flow of water and pushes it across the North Atlantic.
- the Coriolis effect deflects the ocean currents in the North Atlantic Ocean

Oceanic circulation would probably be asked for 4 marks in a higher exam, whereas Milankovitch theory would only be asked for 1 mark as part of a climate change answer so sorry my answer isn't really in depth at all hahaha

Milankovitch theory - the earths elliptical orbit around the sun means that at certain times of the year the earth can be much closer to the sun and therefore receive more of the Suns energy. Changes in the tilt of the earth also affects the amount of insolation the earth receives. The greater the tilt, the closer some areas are to the sun and therefore receive more energy eg the earths polar regions.

Hope this helps
Thank you very much. Let me know if you need any help in any other subjects.
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bean101
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Here's the marking scheme for the 2015 higher exam about atmospheric circulation, write something similar and you should get the marks but as I say, it might be different in England

Warm air rises at the Equator and travels in the upper atmosphere to around 300 N and S, cools and sinks (1 mark). Air moves from the tropical high to the low pressure area at the equator creating the Hadley cell/Trade Winds (1 mark)
Cold air sinking at the poles moves to 60oN/S to form the Polar Cell/Polar Easterlies (1 mark).
The cold air from the poles meets warmer air from the tropics, causing air to rise creating the Ferrel Cell low pressure. (1 mark)
Air is moved from the tropical HP, towards LP at the polar front, forming the westerlies (1 mark)
This convergence causes the air to rise, with some of this flowing in the upper atmosphere to the Poles where it sinks, forming the Polar cell. Easterly winds blow away from the high pressure at the Pole. (1 mark).
Warm air from the Equator is distributed to higher and cooler latitudes and cold air from the Poles distributed to lower and warmer latitudes (1 mark).
Due to the Coriolis effect winds are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere (1 mark).
Credit should be awarded for answers which refer to the Rossby Waves and/or the Jet Stream

May I ask if this is GCSEs or a level?,
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gcses2018
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(Original post by bean101)
Here's the marking scheme for the 2015 higher exam about atmospheric circulation, write something similar and you should get the marks but as I say, it might be different in England

Warm air rises at the Equator and travels in the upper atmosphere to around 300 N and S, cools and sinks (1 mark). Air moves from the tropical high to the low pressure area at the equator creating the Hadley cell/Trade Winds (1 mark)

Cold air sinking at the poles moves to 60oN/S to form the Polar Cell/Polar Easterlies (1 mark).

The cold air from the poles meets warmer air from the tropics, causing air to rise creating the Ferrel Cell low pressure. (1 mark)
Air is moved from the tropical HP, towards LP at the polar front, forming the westerlies (1 mark)

This convergence causes the air to rise, with some of this flowing in the upper atmosphere to the Poles where it sinks, forming the Polar cell. Easterly winds blow away from the high pressure at the Pole. (1 mark).

Warm air from the Equator is distributed to higher and cooler latitudes and cold air from the Poles distributed to lower and warmer latitudes (1 mark).
Due to the Coriolis effect winds are deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere (1 mark).

Credit should be awarded for answers which refer to the Rossby Waves and/or the Jet Stream

May I ask if this is GCSEs or a level?,
It's for GCSEs
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bean101
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Ah okay so the marking scheme isn’t exactly at the same level but it will still be relevant but I wouldn’t worry if you’ve never seen some of it before hahaha.

Good luck for the exam
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