exhaustedstudent
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#1
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#1
Can someone help explain what I should include in this 6 mark question?
Do I need to talk about tissue fluid? Or is it something else?
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areyouhuman
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(Original post by exhaustedstudent)
Can someone help explain what I should include in this 6 mark question?Name:  0C0DDAD9-03B7-4853-9FF8-AB762183EC0D.jpg.jpeg
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is this A-level or GCSE?
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exhaustedstudent
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(Original post by areyouhuman)
is this A-level or GCSE?
A level
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areyouhuman
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(Original post by exhaustedstudent)
A level
oh 😂 sorryyy won’t be able to help you then :// good luck tho?
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username3093384
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#5
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Main points:
Transported in blood being dissolved
Taken up by active transport
Incorporated into protein by forming tRNA
No tissue involved, just expand this points to reach 6 marks
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exhaustedstudent
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(Original post by areyouhuman)
oh 😂 sorryyy won’t be able to help you then :// good luck tho?
thanks, haha, we’ve done it before but the teacher never told us the answer..
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exhaustedstudent
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#7
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#7
(Original post by Hammad(214508))
Main points:
Transported in blood being dissolved
Taken up by active transport
Incorporated into protein by forming tRNA
No tissue involved, just expand this points to reach 6 marks
Thanks!
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areyouhuman
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(Original post by exhaustedstudent)
thanks, haha, we’ve done it before but the teacher never told us the answer..
wooow well that’s helpful !!
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RickHendricks
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#9
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(Original post by areyouhuman)
is this A-level or GCSE?
Proteins broken up into amino acids.

Amino acids enter the cells lining the ileum using co-transporter proteins and diffuse into the cells by facilitated diffusion along with sodium ions, which have a concentration gradient due to the sodium potassium pump on the other side.

The amino acids then enter the blood stream by diffusion as normal using a channel protein.

Once entered into the blood stream, they travel to the muscle tissue cells.

Once inside, they match up to tRNA molecules with the anticodon for making that amino acid.

Once inside it, they are made into proteins by process of translation in the ribosomes.

If you want to go deeper: talk about translation: The fact that the mRNA travels to the ribosomes and the codons are read by the tRNA molecules with the anti-codons.

When read, the next tRNA comes along to the next codon in the mRNA, and when this happens, the amino acids on the tRNA molecules join together by a peptide bond.

This process repeats creating a chain of amino acids, eventually creating a protein molecule.

Not entirely sure about the working for the first bit(what happens in the S.intestine)

exhaustedstudent
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exhaustedstudent
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#10
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(Original post by RickHendricks)
Proteins broken up into amino acids.

Amino acids enter the cells lining the ileum using co-transporter proteins and diffuse into the cells by facilitated diffusion along with sodium ions, which have a concentration gradient due to the sodium potassium pump on the other side.

The amino acids then enter the blood stream by diffusion as normal using a channel protein.

Once entered into the blood stream, they travel to the muscle tissue cells.

Once inside, they match up to tRNA molecules with the anticodon for making that amino acid.

Once inside it, they are made into proteins by process of translation in the ribosomes.

If you want to go deeper: talk about translation: The fact that the mRNA travels to the ribosomes and the codons are read by the tRNA molecules with the anti-codons.

When read, the next tRNA comes along to the next codon in the mRNA, and when this happens, the amino acids on the tRNA molecules join together by a peptide bond.

This process repeats creating a chain of amino acids, eventually creating a protein molecule.

Not entirely sure about the working for the first bit(what happens in the S.intestine)

exhaustedstudent
Awesome! Thanks!
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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#11
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#11
exhaustedstudent


RickHendricks


Well done, very good answer.

Just to answer your last bit (about first bit)

AS Q ONLY STARTS WITH TRANSPORT, THE mark scheme is unlikely to contain details of digestion, but I am covering it below for learning purposes.

ABSORPTION: I would mention the words "secondary active transport" (which might carry one mark) AND that ATP is needed.

There are specific mechanisms for absorption of particular amino acids e.g. the basic ones like histidine (which have two amino groups).
For A* (outside A level syllabus):-
a] two absorption mechanisms also require Cl-
b] some dipeptides and tripeptides are also absorbed using PepT1 (peptide transporter 1)
c] most amino acid absorption occurs in the duodenum and jejunum

(DIGESTION)

First, breakdown by endonucleases to produce smaller chains (therefore more ends available for exopeptidases (aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase) to act on: (most efficient way)

Pepsin produced from its precursor, pepsinogen in stomach which hydrolyses peptide bond between aromatic amino acids like phenylalanine (or tyrosine) and other amino acids.

Trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase are secreted in pancreatic juice by pancreatic exocrine cells then enter duodenum at sphincter of Oddi (with bile duct)

Trypsin breaks bonds next to arginine and lysine
Chymotrypsin breaks bonds next to aromatic amino aids
Elastase breaks bonds next to aliphatic amino acids

M (specialist biology tutor)
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