dlsoii
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  1. a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria. (1)

b)
  • HOW TO REDUCE SPREAD OF SALMONELLA: Maintain good hygiene: do not share utensils with those who are uninfected.

Isolate yourself from those who are uninfected until recovered. Wash hands. (2)c) Antibiotics
  1. d) AIDS is last stage HIV, and virus has weakened immune system so less able to fight off infection, meaning that it would take longer for a person with HIV to recover from salmonella than a normal person.

e) Antibiotics in case of infection, isolate infected chickens, treat infected chickens, (irradiate meat), cull infected chickensf) B -kills a higher percentage/proportion of bacteria 3.7 % / 4% (Sink: 16% for B, 23% for A)Agar plate: to calculate needs radius of cleared area (zone of inhibition) for Pi x R^2AGAR PLATES REPEATABLE: h) how can the student make the investigation repeatable toxic/dangerous for customers or effects on other bacteria in the restaurant because salmonella is not the only one.WAS EGG 4 ANOMALOUS? Yes, mass change was substantially less than others(Third for mass before, last for mass after. Had roughly half the change in mass the others did)CALCULATION 32.1 % (decrease MASS of egg number 3)2 a) Heart rate of person S increases more than heart rate of person R. Heart rate of person R increases faster in the first minutes, by 16 beats as opposed to 12 beats for person S. Graph had to plot for person S, add scale and add label (time, in minutes)b) Vena cava, pulmonary arteryc) Label right atrium (top left hand corner of heart)d) Experiment: Sample of smokers and non smokers, must be a large enough sample size for results to be valid, so minimum 100 people. Measure resting heart rate using electronic heart rate monitor for accuracy, get the subjects to exercise at same intensity e.g. same setting on treadmill and measure heart rate every minute. Record in table, do repeats and calculate mean for each subject, plot graph of time v. heart rate and draw line of best fit, must keep certain factors the same e.g. gender, age, ethnicity.e) Pacemaker used for irregular heart beat/damaged right atrium , arrythmia3. MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY: Causes chlorosis as prevents chlorophyll from being formed. Thus less photsynthesis and less respiration. Thus loses green colour(And becomes yellow) and has less energy, stunting growth, less glucose to make a.a. for protein synthesisAphids feed on cell sap in the phloem which is rich in dissolved sugars, therefore many dissolved sugars in mouth of aphid. 4. PVY ANTIBODIES: Mouse, B-lymphocytes, tumour cellVa, hybridoma, use drug to bond to PVY.More red blood cells per cm^3 means more oxygen can be binded too by the haemoglobin and thus more can be carried around the body and faster. Thus during exercise, more oxygen can be supplied faster to respiring muscles, more respiration, so increased muscle contraction for better performance. 5. EGG Osmosis, active transport: calcium ions move from shell to egg by active transport from a low to a high concentration, against the concentration gradient, thus requiring energy and different concentrations then graph6. 833.333 - 266.666 = 556.6666 cm^3HOW MANY DO NOT NEED LUNG TRANSPLANT? 10584 (not 30%, as the question said if someone's lungs functioned at less than 30% then transplant is needed, but only 2% of CF sufferers had lungs which where below 30% so, 10800 x 0.98) STEM CELL LUNGS: use therapeutic cloning, embryo produced with same genes as patient, therefore not rejected (i know people who wrote about bone marrow and adult stem cell cloning, not sure if would get the marks because adult stem cells can only differentiate into leukocytes, but maybe who knows...?)a) DNA b) Controls the movement of substances in / out of the cell. c) CF question: Mucus blocking duct between pancreas / small intestine means that less digestive enzymes can reach food molecules,amylase to break down starch to glucose, and protease protein to amino acid, so fewer soluble molecules. Fewer Molecules to build up for growth. Less respiration, as less glucose and oxygen therefore less respiration, releases less energy to build up molecules.WHY MEDIAN AGE LESS: lower life expectancy, population with CF is youngerHOW TO CALCULATE MEDIAN AGE: total number of people, add 1, divide by 2, identify person with that position and that value is median7. Food tests - Protein Biuret and purple, starch iodine and black, sugars benedict and green-orange-red. Heat up first.a) Lipase breaks down lipids into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, fatty acids, being acidic lower pH of solution to lower than 10, thus solution turns colourless. b) c) Bile emulsifies fat, breaking it down into small droplets which increases surface area, which increases rate of breakdown by lipase, therefore test tube with bile broken down faster. Provides optimum alkaline conditions for breakdown of lipids by lipase, further increasing rate of breakdown. PLASMA QUESTION (rip writing them in order) : carries (basically anything) hormones, urea, carbon dioxide, glucose,Another metabolic reaction: respiration, FROM THE SPEC: glucose to glycogen, starch, cellulose, lipid from 3 fatty acid and glycerol, glucose and nitrate ions to form a.a, respiration, breakdown of protein to urea, PROTEIN SYNTHESIS thanks shaunMINUTES TO GET BACK TO OG HEART RATE: i got 4.5 minutes (132 - 78 / 12)


WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS

Click the link if you actually want to be able to read it:
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xtemi_x
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I agree, but I put antitoxins but I meant toxins!!! That's really frustrated meeeee
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ki.0202
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for 1 d, what was the actual question, and how many marks was it?
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10oba-abbad
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For the bile one. No marks awarded for talking about alkaline pH. This is only for inside the human body as food coming from stomach is acidic.

For CF to put it very simply - blocks enzymes from pancreas -> fewer insoluble food molecules broken down -> fewer soluble food molecules available for absorption -> fewer small molecules to build up into larger ones for growth eg. protein synthesis.

Question on training at high altitudes - more red blood cells per cm^3 means more oxygen can be binded too by the haemoglobin and thus more can be carried around the body and faster. Thus during exercise, more oxygen can be supplied faster to respiring muscles so easier to stop getting breathless I think...
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Jasminefourn
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(Original post by ki.0202)
for 1 d, what was the actual question, and how many marks was it?
i think it was why would someone with hiv/aids take longer to fight off salmonella than a healthy person
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dlsoii
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(Original post by ki.0202)
for 1 d, what was the actual question, and how many marks was it?
Why will someone with AIDS take longer to fight off salmonella than a normal person?
[2 marks]
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josh20019
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(Original post by crybabynessie)
1.
a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria.
b)
Maintain good hygiene: do not share utensils with those who are uninfected.
Isolate yourself from those who are uninfected until recovered.
c) Antibiotics
d) AIDS is last stage HIV, and virus has weakened immune system so less able to fight off infection, meaning that it would take longer for a person with HIV to recover from salmonella than a normal person.
e)
f) B - kills more bacteria
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) DNA
b) Controls the movement of substances in / out of the cell.
c) CF question:
Mucus blocking duct between pancreas / small intestine means that less digestive enzymes can reach food molecules,amylase to break down
7.
a) Lipase breaks down lipids into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, fatty acids, being acidic lower pH of solution to lower than 10, thus solution turns colourless.
b)
c) Bile emulsifies fat, breaking it down into small droplets which increases surface area, which increases rate of breakdown by lipase, therefore test tube with bile broken down faster. Provides optimum alkaline conditions for breakdown of lipids by lipase, further increasing rate of breakdown.

WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS
The answer wasnt DNA it was amino acids, it asked what the molecule is made up of
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dlsoii
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(Original post by 10oba-abbad)
For the bile one. No marks awarded for talking about alkaline pH. This is only for inside the human body as food coming from stomach is acidic.

For CF to put it very simply - blocks enzymes from pancreas -> fewer insoluble food molecules broken down -> fewer soluble food molecules available for absorption -> fewer small molecules to build up into larger ones for growth eg. protein synthesis.

Question on training at high altitudes - more red blood cells per cm^3 means more oxygen can be binded too by the haemoglobin and thus more can be carried around the body and faster. Thus during exercise, more oxygen can be supplied faster to respiring muscles so easier to stop getting breathless I think...
Hmm...I guess, milk is still slightly acidic so wouldn't it make a tiny difference.
Anyways, thank you!
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sxhxl
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there was a question on labelling the pacemaker which was on the right atrium and one on what transports oxygenated blood which i believe was the pulmonary vein and vena cava??
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Toby Beniston
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(Original post by josh20019)
The answer wasnt DNA it was amino acids, it asked what the molecule is made up of
DNA is a molecule...
A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.
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Dan.M
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Genes are made up of DNA and code for proteins (each codon of the gene codes for an amino acid which makes up a protein).
(Original post by josh20019)
The answer wasnt DNA it was amino acids, it asked what the molecule is made up of
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username2446583
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could you include the marks as well that would be super thanks
(Original post by crybabynessie)
1.
a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria.
b)
Maintain good hygiene: do not share utensils with those who are uninfected.
Isolate yourself from those who are uninfected until recovered.
c) Antibiotics
d) AIDS is last stage HIV, and virus has weakened immune system so less able to fight off infection, meaning that it would take longer for a person with HIV to recover from salmonella than a normal person.
e)
f) B - kills more bacteria
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) DNA
b) Controls the movement of substances in / out of the cell.
c) CF question:
Mucus blocking duct between pancreas / small intestine means that less digestive enzymes can reach food molecules,amylase to break down
7.
a) Lipase breaks down lipids into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, fatty acids, being acidic lower pH of solution to lower than 10, thus solution turns colourless.
b)
c) Bile emulsifies fat, breaking it down into small droplets which increases surface area, which increases rate of breakdown by lipase, therefore test tube with bile broken down faster. Provides optimum alkaline conditions for breakdown of lipids by lipase, further increasing rate of breakdown.

WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS
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Frank5871
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(Original post by crybabynessie)
1.
a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria.
b)
Maintain good hygiene: do not share utensils with those who are uninfected.
Isolate yourself from those who are uninfected until recovered.
c) Antibiotics
d) AIDS is last stage HIV, and virus has weakened immune system so less able to fight off infection, meaning that it would take longer for a person with HIV to recover from salmonella than a normal person.
e)
f) B - kills more bacteria
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) DNA
b) Controls the movement of substances in / out of the cell.
c) CF question:
Mucus blocking duct between pancreas / small intestine means that less digestive enzymes can reach food molecules,amylase to break down
7.
a) Lipase breaks down lipids into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, fatty acids, being acidic lower pH of solution to lower than 10, thus solution turns colourless.
b)
c) Bile emulsifies fat, breaking it down into small droplets which increases surface area, which increases rate of breakdown by lipase, therefore test tube with bile broken down faster. Provides optimum alkaline conditions for breakdown of lipids by lipase, further increasing rate of breakdown.

WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS
I thought the first one was to remove the harmful bacteria from the body
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ManavS31
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(Original post by crybabynessie)
1.
a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria.
b)
Maintain good hygiene: do not share utensils with those who are uninfected.
Isolate yourself from those who are uninfected until recovered.
c) Antibiotics
d) AIDS is last stage HIV, and virus has weakened immune system so less able to fight off infection, meaning that it would take longer for a person with HIV to recover from salmonella than a normal person.
e)
f) B - kills more bacteria
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) DNA
b) Controls the movement of substances in / out of the cell.
c) CF question:
7.
a) Lipase breaks down lipids into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, fatty acids, being acidic lower pH of solution to lower than 10, thus solution turns colourless.
b)
c) Bile emulsifies fat, breaking it down into small droplets which increases surface area, which increases rate of breakdown by lipase, therefore test tube with bile broken down faster. Provides optimum alkaline conditions for breakdown of lipids by lipase, further increasing rate of breakdown.

WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS
**** i thought for the AIDS one you had to put it was a virus so antibiotics dont kills viruses
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anonymouse(:
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(Original post by sxhxl)
there was a question on labelling the pacemaker which was on the right atrium and one on what transports oxygenated blood which i believe was the pulmonary vein and vena cava??
its pulmonary artery and vena cava
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CSoare
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(Original post by crybabynessie)
1.
a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria.
b)
Maintain good hygiene: do not share utensils with those who are uninfected.
Isolate yourself from those who are uninfected until recovered.
c) Antibiotics
d) AIDS is last stage HIV, and virus has weakened immune system so less able to fight off infection, meaning that it would take longer for a person with HIV to recover from salmonella than a normal person.
e)
f) B - kills more bacteria
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
a) DNA
b) Controls the movement of substances in / out of the cell.
c) CF question:
Mucus blocking duct between pancreas / small intestine means that less digestive enzymes can reach food molecules,amylase to break down
7.
a) Lipase breaks down lipids into three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule, fatty acids, being acidic lower pH of solution to lower than 10, thus solution turns colourless.
b)
c) Bile emulsifies fat, breaking it down into small droplets which increases surface area, which increases rate of breakdown by lipase, therefore test tube with bile broken down faster. Provides optimum alkaline conditions for breakdown of lipids by lipase, further increasing rate of breakdown.

WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS

What did you get for the smoker/ non smoker design a test for this hypothesis question? Also what did you get for the question about the aphid in the stem and why it had dissolved sugars on its needle thing>
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skrish3
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(Original post by josh20019)
The answer wasnt DNA it was amino acids, it asked what the molecule is made up of
I thought it was just what are genes made up of? Not sure though
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QW3RTY1234
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(Original post by crybabynessie)
1.
a) Toxins secreted by salmonella bacteria.

WORK IN PROGRESS, PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU DISAGREE / KNOW ANY OF THE ANSWERS
Isnt in the damage to the cell that causes us to be ill?
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Nickie1044
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For the first one I said contractions so that the bacteria are physically expelled from the body (like when you have diarrhoea the bacteria is expelled in the faeces and the cramps are the contractions)
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10oba-abbad
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also for why B is better cleaning liquid, both liquids started off on different amounts of bacteria so I don't think you can say B killed more as it may have had to kill less to start with anymore. I just whipped out my calculator and said its B as a lower percentage of the original bacteria remains than for A
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