Aqa a-level psychology paper 2 **unofficial mark scheme 08/06/18

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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by benstables16)
Hopefully paper 1 brings up my mark. Although, that was the only question I struggled on.
Yeah I’m sure it will. I know 16 is a lot of marks, but imagine if you did really well on the other sections- it would be a hit but it wouldn’t be a massive one. If you get what I mean.
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HustleIsKey
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)


Research Methods:

Multiple choice for dreams asked you to estimate the percentage of people who put putting chased (1 mark)
27% [lots of people put 47% as their answer, I can understand why because some believed the pie chart was out of 360%, nope pie charts are still out of 100%, therefore the segment for being chased would be 27%]

What is a pilot study and one reason why do we use it? (2 marks)

  • - A pilot study is a small-scale trial run of the experiment that allows the researcher to check that the experiment will run smoothly, here they will check for errors, that the participants understand the standardised instructions and that they are testing what they are meant to be testing (face validity) this is so no time, money or effort is wasted if the experiment goes on.


Describe what qualitative data is and give one advantage about using qualitative data? (2 marks)

-descriptive information that is expressed in words
-greater detail= greater insight
-allows for indepth analysis
-specific themes and patterns identified
-rich data leading to further research

Write a brief for consent: include an appropriate format, the aims of the study, ethical issues you may face (6 marks):

[I had some fun with this one]

To [insert name]_____________

  • - Say the aim of the experiment- what would be tested
  • - What they will be doing
  • - Talked about their right to withdraw info or leave experiment, talked about how they would be protected by confidentiality
  • - Talked about them being able to receive some counselling if they needed it as some participants may suffer from psychology disturbances, due to watching horror movies

Researchers signature_______ participants signature ________ Date_______

Write a suitable directional hypothesis (3 marks)

Participants who watch horror movies before bed will have more nightmare than participants who watch romantic comedies before going bed.


Explain how researcher could have used random sampling to assign participants to the conditions? (3 marks)

  • - Give each participant a number, put number into computerised generator, researcher may decide that the first 25 numbers will be in condition A and the next in condition B or alternates between condition A, then condition B, then condition A again


Researcher wants to use content analysis, explain how the research could use content analysis for this experiment? (4 marks)

  • - I talked about a little about what content analysis was converting qualitative data to quantitate data through coding. I think I said something like she could look at every nth participant and collect their response, code the data so that she can look for trends and correlations in answers.

[Found this one challenging- any answers/suggestions for this would be great!]

Researcher wants to test whether her findings were reliable, suggests how she can do this. (4 marks)

  • - Test retest: getting participants to do the test twice on 2 separate occasions and compare answers to see if they are the same
  • - Split-half method
  • - Inter-observer: uses more than one observer to observe the experiment independently where they produce their own conclusions and then compare findings
  • - If the co-efficient of test-retest and inter-observer exceeds +0.80 then the findings are reliable


A total of 325 males took part, how many of them said they had aggressive interactions (60%) in dreams, show your working (3 marks):

375/100= 3.75*60=225, so the answer was 225 males.

Draw a graphical display of the data present in the table, label axis and give the title a graph

  • - Title: a graph to show the relationship between…..
  • - X -axis: participants- male and female
  • - Y- axis: the percentages
  • - It should have looked similar to one of the two bar charts below, however way you may have done it:


Attachment 754428 or basically like that but vertical (the other stupid image didn't want to load)
What are investigator effects and how can they be reduced? (3 marks)

  • - Investigator effects are any cues given by the researcher that may allow the participants to guess the aim of the experiment e.g. the researcher smiling when the participant gives the answer the researcher wants to hear
  • - Many ways to counter act this: single-blind, double-blind, randomisation, someone else to collect the data on their behalf


Explain why repeated measures was used for this experiment? (2 marks)

  • - Repeated measures were used to reduce participant variables which may have acted as extraneous variables which may have otherwise had an effect on the dependent variable, therefore this limit misconstruing the conclusions found


The researcher used counterbalancing why has the researcher done this? (2 marks)

  • - This is done to limit the chance of order effects- boredom, fatigue of the participants etc.


What does the mean and standard deviation suggest about the effects of watching horror films and romantic comedies use figures from table 2? (4 marks)

[just had to describe what you could read from the table, using figures and add on a concluding sentence at the end to show what all this data shows]

-mean number of nightmares for horror films was much higher than that of romantic movies- use figures
- standard deviation of horror movies were greater than romantic comedies, the larger the standard deviation, the more the data is spread out- use figures
- this therefore shows that there is a correlation to watching horror movies before going bed and the number of nightmares a person experiences

How can the experimental design be improved to increase validity? (4 marks)

[I’ve seen a lot of people talk about changing the experimental design to something like matched pairs, independent groups but I don’t think it was asking that. I believe it was asking you to improve the existing experimental design (repeated measures)]

I put they should give the participants standardised instructions to minimise the impact of demand characteristics and investigator effects
I’ve heard some of people say the use of control groups to allow researchers to be confident about their conclusions
I’ve also heard people put stuff like face validity and concurrent validity

[all these again, I will check with teacher and get back to you]
Man this is some crazy memory. Lool dunno how you remembered all this. ]
I think the pilot study was 3 marks tho im not sure. For the last question I put make sure they dont watch other films to increase control and internal validity. Yeah the content analysis i put something about coding and thematic analysis.
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HustleIsKey
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)
So you think it literally said 'Outline' solely for behaviourist approach and not biological.

Anyone else can verify or disprove this?
yeah 100% said Outline the behaviorist approach. Compare the bio and behaviourist.
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by HustleIsKey)
yeah 100% said Outline the behaviorist approach. Compare the bio and behaviourist.
Cool thanks. I’ll change it now
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dannydevil117
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Idk if this got answered but say in the 16 marker you wrote 5 evaluation paragraphs and 4 were correct but for one of them you wrote both as being nature will you be marked down or will that paragraph not be credited?
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JadeSymons
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)
Guys can't lie I'm gonna need a lot of help to remember some of these research questions, please respond to this post if you have any you can remember, I got a few but I know I'm missing some.
I remember a few (not in order or the scenarios) and ill list them down below, thank you for making this!

What are investigator effects? and how can these be minimised? (3)
What is a pilot study? (3)
Why did they use repeated measures? (2)
Why did they counterbalance? (2)
Explain how the psychologist could of randomly split the sample (3)
Draw a graph to represent the data in table 2 (4)
Write a consent form (6)
What does the mean and standard deviation say about the results? (4)
Calculate how many males (did/ didn't have) nightmares. (2)
What is/how to use a content analysis? (4)
Write a directional hypothesis (3)
How to improve the reliability
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by HustleIsKey)
Man this is some crazy memory. Lool dunno how you remembered all this. ]
I think the pilot study was 3 marks tho im not sure. For the last question I put make sure they dont watch other films to increase control and internal validity. Yeah the content analysis i put something about coding and thematic analysis.
LOOL, it was literally to struggle to remember all of this! Normally my memory is quite good, that why I can remember stuff more easily for History, but this was harder because this has soo many tiny questions.

I thought it might be 3 marks for the pilot and yeah for the last one when I talked about standardised instructions I gave the e.g. of making sure that participants don't watch or do anything else, just go straight to bed to control that CV.

Yeah content analysis was not my strong suit!
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by JadeSymons)
I remember a few (not in order or the scenarios) and ill list them down below, thank you for making this!

What are investigator effects? and how can these be minimised? (3)
What is a pilot study? (3)
Why did they use repeated measures? (2)
Why did they counterbalance? (2)
Explain how the psychologist could of randomly split the sample (3)
Draw a graph to represent the data in table 2 (4)
Write a consent form (6)
What does the mean and standard deviation say about the results? (4)
Calculate how many males (did/ didn't have) nightmares. (2)
What is/how to use a content analysis? (4)
Write a directional hypothesis (3)
Thank you!
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by HustleIsKey)
yeah 100% said Outline the behaviorist approach. Compare the bio and behaviourist.
Thank you!
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by dannydevil117)
Idk if this got answered but say in the 16 marker you wrote 5 evaluation paragraphs and 4 were correct but for one of them you wrote both as being nature will you be marked down or will that paragraph not be credited?
They will probably still look at the paragraph regardless of if you wrote 5 evaluation paragraphs, because its your work, so they will have to look at it. So maybe a deduction of 1 mark, for getting confused between the nature/nurture aspect, but it shouldn't be too much.
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CarefreeDreams
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I've started a separate thread for Paper 3 (everyones welcome), but I will be focusing on Issues & Debates, Stress, Relationships and Forensics Psychology, so when the time comes I'll do a mark scheme for that too. But like I said everyone is welcome: https://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/sho....php?t=5415806
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x.sabiha
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I think AQA are being too easy this year might step it up for paper 3
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by x.sabiha)
I think AQA are being too easy this year might step it up for paper 3
You really think so, it was a bit harsh of them to put 3 16 markers in the first paper, I can't lie the second paper was fairly nice, because they could have been a lot harsher in biopsychology and research methods.
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dannydevil117
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)
You really think so, it was a bit harsh of them to put 3 16 markers in the first paper, I can't lie the second paper was fairly nice, because they could have been a lot harsher in biopsychology and research methods.
I guess it depends on your perspective but 3 16 markers is hard due to time constraints, comparison of approaches is way harder than just outline and evaluate approaches, biopsychology was centered around first years stuff and people didn't do well on the 4 or 8 marker for it so I think in comparison to last years ours is slightly harder
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by dannydevil117)
I guess it depends on your perspective but 3 16 markers is hard due to time constraints, comparison of approaches is way harder than just outline and evaluate approaches, biopsychology was centered around first years stuff and people didn't do well on the 4 or 8 marker for it so I think in comparison to last years ours is slightly harder
Mmm true, for biopsychology section you would have thought they would have put a lot more A2 stuff, but I think they put more AS (1- to test whether people even went over that stuff and 2- because last year they put a lot of A2 stuff).
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dannydevil117
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)
Mmm true, for biopsychology section you would have thought they would have put a lot more A2 stuff, but I think they put more AS (1- to test whether people even went over that stuff and 2- because last year they put a lot of A2 stuff).
True I was expecting a question on synaptic transmission or flight/fight response but it to be mostly centered around biological rhythms, localisation+lateralisation and possibly recovery
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CarefreeDreams
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(Original post by dannydevil117)
True I was expecting a question on synaptic transmission or flight/fight response but it to be mostly centered around biological rhythms, localisation+lateralisation and possibly recovery
Yeah, thats what I mean I expected fight or flight and synaptic transmission (just not in the way it came up!), but I expected stuff like the infradian/circadian/ultradian rhythms which I guess did technical come up in that 8 marker.
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x.sabiha
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)
You really think so, it was a bit harsh of them to put 3 16 markers in the first paper, I can't lie the second paper was fairly nice, because they could have been a lot harsher in biopsychology and research methods.
Yeah biopsych was a bit ****ed up with the synapse question confused a lot of students 😂
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JadeSymons
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(Original post by CarefreeDreams)
Thank you!
For the question below, I wrote take more than one measurement and compare the results. Will that get any marks?

Researcher wants to test whether her findings were reliable, suggests how she can do this. (4 marks)

  • - Test retest: getting participants to do the test twice on 2 separate occasions and compare answers to see if they are the same
  • - Split-half method
  • - Inter-observer: uses more than one observer to observe the experiment independently where they produce their own conclusions and then compare findings
  • - If the co-efficient of test-retest and inter-observer exceeds +0.80 then the findings are reliable
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frostfly
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(Original post by JadeSymons)
For the question below, I wrote take more than one measurement and compare the results. Will that get any marks?

Researcher wants to test whether her findings were reliable, suggests how she can do this. (4 marks)

  • - Test retest: getting participants to do the test twice on 2 separate occasions and compare answers to see if they are the same
  • - Split-half method
  • - Inter-observer: uses more than one observer to observe the experiment independently where they produce their own conclusions and then compare findings
  • - If the co-efficient of test-retest and inter-observer exceeds +0.80 then the findings are reliable
You needed to apply your answer to the scenario they gave you. Only inter-rater reliability is relevant in this case, but you didn’t mention it in your answer. Sorry but I doubt you’d get any marks, it just sounds like you wrote everything you know about reliability, without really answering the question.
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