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6 Marker on protein synthesis

Does anyone have a 6 mark response for (GCSE Triple higher depth):

Describe the process of protein synthesis (6 marks)

EDIT: So, I have come up with this response (Feel free to critique / improve or tell me your comments on it):

Firstly, the DNA is transcripted into mRNA which acts as a messenger molecule to get the code from the DNA onto the ribosomes, this is done because the DNA itself is too big to leave the nucleus. Then the mRNA binds onto the surface of a ribosome. As the cytoplasm contains carrier molecules which attach to specific amino acids, the ribosomes attach the amino acids from the carrier molecules together in the order given by the code from the mRNA. This creates the polypeptide chain. Finally, the polypeptide chain is folded to create the desired protein. When making enzymes it is folded to create an active site.
(edited 5 years ago)

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Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps.[1] They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from DNA template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA).

The cistron DNA is transcribed into the first of a series of RNA intermediates. The last version is used as a template in synthesis of a polypeptide chain. Protein will often be synthesized directly from genes by translating mRNA. However, when a protein must be available on short notice or in large quantities, a protein precursor is produced. A proprotein is an inactive protein containing one or more inhibitory peptides that can be activated when the inhibitory sequence is removed by proteolysis during posttranslational modification. A preprotein is a form that contains a signal sequence (an N-terminal signal peptide) that specifies its insertion into or through membranes, i.e., targets them for secretion.[2] The signal peptide is cleaved off in the endoplasmic reticulum.[2] Preproproteins have both sequences (inhibitory and signal) still present.

In protein synthesis, a succession of tRNA molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with an mRNA molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. The amino acids are then linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. This whole complex of processes is carried out by the ribosome, formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and more than 50 different proteins. The ribosome latches onto the end of an mRNA molecule and moves along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and joining together their amino acids to form a new protein chain.[3]

Protein biosynthesis, although very similar, is different for prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Reply 3
Original post by bullyhunter75


Lol have you read the question?
Original post by BaptuMeister
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps.[1] They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from DNA template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA).

The cistron DNA is transcribed into the first of a series of RNA intermediates. The last version is used as a template in synthesis of a polypeptide chain. Protein will often be synthesized directly from genes by translating mRNA. However, when a protein must be available on short notice or in large quantities, a protein precursor is produced. A proprotein is an inactive protein containing one or more inhibitory peptides that can be activated when the inhibitory sequence is removed by proteolysis during posttranslational modification. A preprotein is a form that contains a signal sequence (an N-terminal signal peptide) that specifies its insertion into or through membranes, i.e., targets them for secretion.[2] The signal peptide is cleaved off in the endoplasmic reticulum.[2] Preproproteins have both sequences (inhibitory and signal) still present.

In protein synthesis, a succession of tRNA molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with an mRNA molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. The amino acids are then linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. This whole complex of processes is carried out by the ribosome, formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and more than 50 different proteins. The ribosome latches onto the end of an mRNA molecule and moves along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and joining together their amino acids to form a new protein chain.[3]

Protein biosynthesis, although very similar, is different for prokaryotes and eukaryotes.


Nice answer but too much depth for GCSE question.
Reply 5
Original post by BaptuMeister
Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. Translation, the assembly of amino acids by ribosomes, is an essential part of the biosynthetic pathway, along with generation of messenger RNA (mRNA), aminoacylation of transfer RNA (tRNA), co-translational transport, and post-translational modification. Protein biosynthesis is strictly regulated at multiple steps.[1] They are principally during transcription (phenomena of RNA synthesis from DNA template) and translation (phenomena of amino acid assembly from RNA).

The cistron DNA is transcribed into the first of a series of RNA intermediates. The last version is used as a template in synthesis of a polypeptide chain. Protein will often be synthesized directly from genes by translating mRNA. However, when a protein must be available on short notice or in large quantities, a protein precursor is produced. A proprotein is an inactive protein containing one or more inhibitory peptides that can be activated when the inhibitory sequence is removed by proteolysis during posttranslational modification. A preprotein is a form that contains a signal sequence (an N-terminal signal peptide) that specifies its insertion into or through membranes, i.e., targets them for secretion.[2] The signal peptide is cleaved off in the endoplasmic reticulum.[2] Preproproteins have both sequences (inhibitory and signal) still present.

In protein synthesis, a succession of tRNA molecules charged with appropriate amino acids are brought together with an mRNA molecule and matched up by base-pairing through the anti-codons of the tRNA with successive codons of the mRNA. The amino acids are then linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. This whole complex of processes is carried out by the ribosome, formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and more than 50 different proteins. The ribosome latches onto the end of an mRNA molecule and moves along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and joining together their amino acids to form a new protein chain.[3]

Protein biosynthesis, although very similar, is different for prokaryotes and eukaryotes.


Err two things: This is way above GCSE, and this is wayyy too long. (6 Markers at gcse are about 4-7 sentences for full marks)
Original post by bullyhunter75


Wrong forum.No one needs to know how einstein solved conundrums of light with Plancks quantum theory here.
Reply 7
Original post by bobby147
Nice answer but too much depth for GCSE question.


It is literally just copy and paste from wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_biosynthesis
there wont be a 6 marker on protein synthesis , the spec doesn't require you to learn it in detail
I thought the OP was supposed to be the troll and the people responding in the thread would post the genuine responses, not the other way around...
Original post by lolololol1235e1
there wont be a 6 marker on protein synthesis , the spec doesn't require you to learn it in detail


Wow,can’t believe I didn’t realise this 😊.I think lololol answered your question then.
Original post by It's****ingWOODY
I thought the OP was supposed to be the troll and the people responding in the thread would post the genuine responses, not the other way around...


:frown: sadly no proper responses yet.
Original post by lolololol1235e1
there wont be a 6 marker on protein synthesis , the spec doesn't require you to learn it in detail


I would still like to know a 6 mark version of the explanation. It can definitely come up as a 4 marker.
Original post by ZdYnm8vuNR
Does anyone have a 6 mark response for (GCSE Triple higher depth):

Describe the process of protein synthesis (6 marks)


-mRNA copies one strand of DNA (mention DNA strand is too large to exit nucleus)
-this mRNA molecule travels out of nucleus onto a ribosome
-every 3 neuclotides(base in each one,A,T,C,G) codes for 1 amino acid (mention this was done in cytoplasm ON TOP of ribosome)
-amino acids are joined together in specific sequence to make a protein

I don't actually think you'd get a 6 marker, maybe a 3 or 4
Here’s what I would put:

Inside of the nucleus, the DNA strands unzip. mRNA is created from the original DNA bases, and is complementary to them. The mRNA comes out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm. Ribosomes then read the bases in a triplet code, and create the correct amino acid. The amino acids join up, and this creates a protein. However, mRNA substitutes the base “T” for a different base, “U”.
(edited 5 years ago)
What exam board are you on ?
Original post by bobby147
What exam board are you on ?


AQA
Section of DNA transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus. mRNA spliced to remove unnecessary bits (introns), forming mature mRNA. This is transported out of the cell to ribosomes in the cytoplasm/ rough endoplasmic reticulum, where the mRNA is translated into its complementary sequence of amino acids (each triplet of bases (codon) is complementary to an tRNA molecule that is attached to an amino acid). Polypeptide chain (primary structure) is then edited into a tertiary structure, and you're done.
Original post by TruffleMumble
Section of DNA transcribed into mRNA in the nucleus. mRNA spliced to remove unnecessary bits (introns), forming mature mRNA. This is transported out of the cell to ribosomes in the cytoplasm/ rough endoplasmic reticulum, where the mRNA is translated into its complementary sequence of amino acids (each triplet of bases (codon) is complementary to an tRNA molecule that is attached to an amino acid). Polypeptide chain (primary structure) is then edited into a tertiary structure, and you're done.


You've gone above GCSE at that point, but I'll use parts of it for my answer, thanks!
What unit is protein synthesis usually in ?
I, trying to go through the past papers to find a model answer.

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