How can I relate the function (Blood cell production) of bones to their structure? Watch

Kali5
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I'm doing some homework on relating the function of the skeletal system to it's structure. One main function of the skeletal system is blood cell production. I'm not sure how to link this to structure of the skeleton?

I would be so grateful if somebody could help me on this one
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Hi,

The function of bone in relation to blood cell formation (erythrocytes [Greek eryth = red as in erythema = red rash on skin], leukocytes [leuko = white] and megakaryocytes [mega = huge; karyos = central so nucleus [cells with v large nucleus]] which break up to form thrombocytes = platelets [thrombo = clumping - you might know that platelets have a role in blood coagulation = clotting]), takes place in the bone marrow, which is the soft part in the centre of the shaft of long bones like the femur [thigh bone] and humerus [upper arm].

ADAPTATIONS
1. This bone marrow has three main types of omnipotent cells [sort of stem cells]:-
a) erythroblasts which go on to form red cells
b) granuloblasts, which go on to form granulocytes (one type of white cell - go to google images - it will explain the name)
c) myeloblasts (go on to form other white cells).

Having these "stem cells" from before birth means there is the potential to produce the final counterparts.

2. Although a major part of bone is biochemically inert material (calcium phosphate and collagen) and does not have a rich blood supply, actually the marrow [and the growing epiphyses in children] are supplied by an intricate network of capillaries called the Haversian system. So the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the bone marrow is very good, as is the drainage of venous blood back to the systemic circulation so blood cells can be used

3. Erythropoietin, the hormone secreted mainly by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production, is present in high amounts in the bone marrow.

4. Various enzymes that are necessary for the synthesis of haemoglobin [Hb] are present in the bone marrow and Iron and copper [both also needed for Hb synthesis]

5. Bone marrow cells that are destined to become erythrocytes (erythroblasts - remember? - see 1a above) have a large number of mitochondria [which are the site of later stages of haemoglobin [Hb] synthesis], but also have a rich RER (can you work out why? - yes well done! Hb is a protein [adult Hb = HbA has four polypeptide chains 2 alpha and 2 beta [the 2 beta ones are replaced by 2 gamma chains in foetal Hb = HbF although this is too advanced for A level so don't worry if you can't remember the print in italics]). and proteins are made in the ribosomes, yeah?

Include all these points and you should get full marks!

Good luck!
M (specialist biology tutor)
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Kali5
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(Original post by macpatgh-Sheldon)
Hi,

The function of bone in relation to blood cell formation (erythrocytes [Greek eryth = red as in erythema = red rash on skin], leukocytes [leuko = white] and megakaryocytes [mega = huge; karyos = central so nucleus [cells with v large nucleus]] which break up to form thrombocytes = platelets [thrombo = clumping - you might know that platelets have a role in blood coagulation = clotting]), takes place in the bone marrow, which is the soft part in the centre of the shaft of long bones like the femur [thigh bone] and humerus [upper arm].

ADAPTATIONS
1. This bone marrow has three main types of omnipotent cells [sort of stem cells]:-
a) erythroblasts which go on to form red cells
b) granuloblasts, which go on to form granulocytes (one type of white cell - go to google images - it will explain the name)
c) myeloblasts (go on to form other white cells).

Having these "stem cells" from before birth means there is the potential to produce the final counterparts.

2. Although a major part of bone is biochemically inert material (calcium phosphate and collagen) and does not have a rich blood supply, actually the marrow [and the growing epiphyses in children] are supplied by an intricate network of capillaries called the Haversian system. So the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the bone marrow is very good, as is the drainage of venous blood back to the systemic circulation so blood cells can be used

3. Erythropoietin, the hormone secreted mainly by the kidneys that stimulates red cell production, is present in high amounts in the bone marrow.

4. Various enzymes that are necessary for the synthesis of haemoglobin [Hb] are present in the bone marrow and Iron and copper [both also needed for Hb synthesis]

5. Bone marrow cells that are destined to become erythrocytes (erythroblasts - remember? - see 1a above) have a large number of mitochondria [which are the site of later stages of haemoglobin [Hb] synthesis], but also have a rich RER (can you work out why? - yes well done! Hb is a protein [adult Hb = HbA has four polypeptide chains 2 alpha and 2 beta [the 2 beta ones are replaced by 2 gamma chains in foetal Hb = HbF although this is too advanced for A level so don't worry if you can't remember the print in italics]). and proteins are made in the ribosomes, yeah?

Include all these points and you should get full marks!

Good luck!
M (specialist biology tutor)
Thank you so so much!!!!!
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