Molecular ions??

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thedecorator33
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#1
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How do you know which atom has datively covalently bonded to the the molecule?

For example in H3O+ or NH4+ which atom datively covalently bonded to the molecule?
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SplittingTheAt0m
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Think about it.

Take the H3O+ ion - Oxygen originally has 6 electrons in it's outer shell, 1 electron bonds with a hydrogen atom to form a covalent bond (a pair is formed) and another electron bonds with a second hydrogen atom. This leaves a full outer shell, and 4 electrons unpaired. A H+ ion comes along, without any electrons, and forms a dative covalent bond with the oxygen (the oxygen supplying both the electrons).

With an NH4+ (ammonium) ion, nitrogen has 5 electrons in it's outer shell. 3 hydrogens can bond with this one ammonium atom to form an ammonia molecule (with a full outer shell), but this leaves 2 unpaired electrons in the outer shell (even though it is full). This allows a H+ ion to come along and form a dative covalent bond with this nitrogen on the ammonia molecule (nitrogen supplying the 2 electrons).
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thedecorator33
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(Original post by SplittingTheAt0m)
Think about it.

Take the H3O+ ion - Oxygen originally has 6 electrons in it's outer shell, 1 electron bonds with a hydrogen atom to form a covalent bond (a pair is formed) and another electron bonds with a second hydrogen atom. This leaves a full outer shell, and 4 electrons unpaired. A H+ ion comes along, without any electrons, and forms a dative covalent bond with the oxygen (the oxygen supplying both the electrons).

With an NH4+ (ammonium) ion, nitrogen has 5 electrons in it's outer shell. 3 hydrogens can bond with this one ammonium atom to form an ammonia molecule (with a full outer shell), but this leaves 2 unpaired electrons in the outer shell (even though it is full). This allows a H+ ion to come along and form a dative covalent bond with this nitrogen on the ammonia molecule (nitrogen supplying the 2 electrons).
So does this mean that dative covalent bonding only happens when a H+ ion is involved?
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charco
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#4
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(Original post by thedecorator33)
So does this mean that dative covalent bonding only happens when a H+ ion is involved?
no, there are many other examples in chemistry
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