Biology unit 5 january 2019 'scientific article' Watch

youssef9461
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#21
(Original post by Christina.edris)
I don’t think that there will be any predicted questions for this session because there isn’t a large number of students sitting for the exam.
Can someone please post a pdf here of the article I’m trying to access it on the Pearson edexcel website and I’m denied access every time and it’s locked so can someone please help?
Hey,
Yes I agree, there aren't going to be predicted questions...here is the link https://docdro.id/JllEbtP
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Christina.edris
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(Original post by youssef9461)
Hey,
Yes I agree, there aren't going to be predicted questions...here is the link https://docd
Thank you very much you’re a life saver!!
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Hedaya Mahrous
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Can anyone please help me, I could not understand the 4th and 5th line in box 4 on page 6.
It says 'Sleep is vital for normal brain function and circadian dysfunction has been linked to sleep disorders, as well as depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory function, and some neurological diseases.'
Here, it says that circadian dysfunction is caused due to sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory function, and some neurological diseases. OR sleep disorders lead to circadian dysfunction, depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory function, and some neurological diseases???
And how much time should we leave for the article?
Thanks in advance.
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Christina.edris
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It doesn’t say that it’s caused by sleep disorders and all the others it says that it has been *linked* to them so they don’t necessarily lead to Circadian dysfunction
Also sleep disorder has been linked to circadian dysfunction along with depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive and memory functions and some neurological diseases, so it’s not clearly stated that it ( sleep disorders) causes all these cases/symptoms and circadian dysfunction.
Try to finish the rest of the exam first and then get on with question 7 but I suggest leaving it till the end.
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Ammaar99
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Has anyone found the predicted questions?
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khaldrogo01
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Has anybody made a document on predicted questions, if so, please share. Need it badly
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Hedaya Mahrous
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(Original post by Christina.edris)
It doesn’t say that it’s caused by sleep disorders and all the others it says that it has been *linked* to them so they don’t necessarily lead to Circadian dysfunction
Also sleep disorder has been linked to circadian dysfunction along with depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive and memory functions and some neurological diseases, so it’s not clearly stated that it ( sleep disorders) causes all these cases/symptoms and circadian dysfunction.
Try to finish the rest of the exam first and then get on with question 7 but I suggest leaving it till the end.
Thank u so much
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Hedaya Mahrous
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Does anyone have the marking scheme for june 2018 and october 2018 WBI05?? + If anyone got the EXPECTED QUESTIONS for the article please share it here.
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Hedaya Mahrous
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GUYSS
In the article in paragraph 3 in the 4th line, what biological processes are stimulated by photoreceptors??
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The Korean girl
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(Original post by Hedaya Mahrous)
Can anyone please help me, I could not understand the 4th and 5th line in box 4 on page 6.
It says 'Sleep is vital for normal brain function and circadian dysfunction has been linked to sleep disorders, as well as depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory function, and some neurological diseases.'
Here, it says that circadian dysfunction is caused due to sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory function, and some neurological diseases. OR sleep disorders lead to circadian dysfunction, depression, bipolar disorder, cognitive function, memory function, and some neurological diseases???
And how much time should we leave for the article?
Thanks in advance.
they said it's linked, so you'll need to think about the neurons and neurotransmitter (deficiency, possibly). According to my research, the Alzheimer which is one of the neurodegenerative disorder is caused by lacking a neurotransmitter called 'orexin', this neurotransmitter is related to appetite, sleeping and etc,, (which is not in the syllabus). This neurotransmitter deficiency is due to less mitochondria in the neuron producing the orexin. Mitochondria which produces the ATP, ATP is the source of energy to synthesize neurotransmitters. Less ATP, less orexin synthesized, less a.p made and (less impulse) sent to the brain, therefore harder muscle coordination, memory function occurs.
I still have much to research about!
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Hridita Bal
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So here 'linked' means a corrleation and not a causation right?
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Hridita Bal
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I think the biological processes here talk about the way rod cells work since cone cells is not in the syllabus
That is: rhodopsin in rod cell
Splitting of rhodopsin as it's hit by light and as it absorbs light
Process is called bleaching
Conversion of cis retinal to trans retinal
Opsin binding with the cell surface membrane of the rod cell causing sodium ion channels to close
Sodium ions leaving rod cell
Hyperpolarisation in rod cell
No glutamate released
Bipolar cell is depolarised
Action potential/inpulse along the optic nerve to the brain
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Hedaya Mahrous
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(Original post by Hridita Bal)
I think the biological processes here talk about the way rod cells work since cone cells is not in the syllabus
That is: rhodopsin in rod cell
Splitting of rhodopsin as it's hit by light and as it absorbs light
Process is called bleaching
Conversion of cis retinal to trans retinal
Opsin binding with the cell surface membrane of the rod cell causing sodium ion channels to close
Sodium ions leaving rod cell
Hyperpolarisation in rod cell
No glutamate released
Bipolar cell is depolarised
Action potential/inpulse along the optic nerve to the brain
It says "photoreceptors in the retina that react when the sun appears to convert the light into signals that stimulate biological processes"
What u stated relate to the processes of converting the light into signals to reach the brain.
However, I thought that a question might come in the exam asking for the biological process stimulated by the brain as it receives the signals from the photoreceptors. In other words, the value of the visual transduction.
Got me?
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Hedaya Mahrous
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(Original post by Hridita Bal)
I think the biological processes here talk about the way rod cells work since cone cells is not in the syllabus
That is: rhodopsin in rod cell
Splitting of rhodopsin as it's hit by light and as it absorbs light
Process is called bleaching
Conversion of cis retinal to trans retinal
Opsin binding with the cell surface membrane of the rod cell causing sodium ion channels to close
Sodium ions leaving rod cell
Hyperpolarisation in rod cell
No glutamate released
Bipolar cell is depolarised
Action potential/inpulse along the optic nerve to the brain
Also, regarding the process u stated, I think when the sodium ions channel close there is no influx of sodium ions, I think what u said 'no sodium ins is leaving' is wrong.
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Hridita Bal
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(Original post by Hedaya Mahrous)
Also, regarding the process u stated, I think when the sodium ions channel close there is no influx of sodium ions, I think what u said 'no sodium ins is leaving' is wrong.
Yes that was a vague to put it
As sodium ion channels close there are no sodium ions entering the rod cell
However the sodium ions are still pumped out by the sodium pumps on the membrane of the inner segment. Sodium ions are leaving the rod cell hence though none/very few is entering
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Hridita Bal
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(Original post by Hedaya Mahrous)
It says "photoreceptors in the retina that react when the sun appears to convert the light into signals that stimulate biological processes"
What u stated relate to the processes of converting the light into signals to reach the brain.
However, I thought that a question might come in the exam asking for the biological process stimulated by the brain as it receives the signals from the photoreceptors. In other words, the value of the visual transduction.
Got me?
I see what you mean
You mean to say what are the biological processes stimulated after the brain receives the impulses
I do not know then. Do you have any ideas?
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The Korean girl
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This article, I found it very interesting.
What I want to share:

clock gene: sequence of bases which codes for a protein which regulates the circadian rhythm

Photoreceptor; def. rod cell and rhodopsin reaction description or how impulse is sent to the visual cortex

Para 4 : stored energy of plants - hydrolysis of starch
photoreceptor in plants - IAA for growth

Para 7: as written below the image, the master clock- hypothalamus is affected
the dopaminergic neurons and some other kind of neurones are located in the part of hypothalamus, If the hypothalamus is affected by jet lag, the imbalance of neurotransmitters occurs, leading to many diseases and accelerating the progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

Para 8 ;statin- reduces blood cholesterol, may potentially ask about atherosclerosis/ heart disease (CVD)

Para 11 ; clock gene, isolating the gene - restriction enzyme

Para 12; identifying the clock gene- the scientist may have used the ' human genome project'

Para 13; gene mutation- change in sequence of bases in the DNA
genetic markers- radioactive labelling, fluorescent tag, stain(?)
the mapping experiment - electrophoresis (probably)

Box 1 ; mutation occured in the 'period gene' - nonsense = nonsense mutation is a pointmutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stopc odon ( **** this maybe important, I just researched the definition)
missense codon= missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
These mutation affected the circadian rhythm of different strain of flies

Para 14; sequencing the gene- also human genome project
genetic expression of protein gene to produce PER protein.Switching the gene on and off changes the level of PER in the neuron

Box 2; PER's role- may act as a pump ( didnt specify for which ion it works)
may act as a proteoglycan which act as connection between cells through gap junction
Transcription factor involved- so mRNA produced, more translation, more protein (PER) synthesized

Para 15; gene expression

Para 6- TIM which is another protein can pass through the PER pump and ( maybe act as a transcription factor of a repressor) to swtich off the period gene

Box 3 ; Im not sure if they are refering the protein kinase cascade to ' regulated protein phosphorylation'
post translational modification- golgi apparatus
DBT- phosphorylates the PER and increases degradation of PER
the light sensitive CRY- binds to TIM and leads to degradation of TIM ( by protease enzymes)
hm so if TIM degrades, period gene is not turned off ( PER is produced) however when the morning arrives, the PER is degraded by DBT anyways
Therefore the level of PER is high at night, low in day.

Para 17- different organisms have diff gene/ protein ( may ask ethical questions??)

Para 18 ; human skin cell - somatic cells ( just in case )
idea of environmental stimuli may affect genetic expression

Para 19; Hypothalamus
Rod cells, rhodopsin
( may ask ocular dominance column/ or hubel and wiesel's experiment as there's some unfortunate people who's lost their sight referred in the article)

Para 20 ; individual cells ( definition of tissue- similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function
organ- group of tissues in a livingorganism that have been adapted to perform a specific function )

Box 4; clock gene affects the production of hormones, and control of Gluconeogenesis ( pyruvate converted into glucose)
imbalance of hormones affects the brain function, circadian dysfunction ect ect. Obviously, because hormones control the neurotransmitters.
Imbalance in neurotransmitters cause disease such as depression (serotonin), Alzheimer (orexin< no need to remember), Parkinson ( dopamine)
Due to my research most of these neurones are found in the midbrain ( the hypothalamus) that's wjy the hypothalamus is referred as the Master clock.

Para 22; ATP- the source of energy!! May ask question about the role of ATP for any reactions or how it is made, ( if in the mitochondria , def. krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation coming out)

Box 5; may ask question to draw a graph for the K+ ion level and the time of the day, as there were graph questions in many of the number 7
graph y-axis = K+ level, x-axis = night to day, it is positive correlation
if another graph, y-axis = circadian rhythm x-axis = K+ content, it is negative correlation

Para 24; evolution- change in characteristic of species over generation due to genetic mutation/ variation. Advantageous alleles are 'conserved', this is natural selection!

Phew, I hope this one helps anyone who's not read the articles, or read it briefly. Took me time to analyse what's gonna come out and personally, number 7 is a nightmare to me. Hope everyone get many many marks from number 7!
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colourlessness
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#38
(Original post by The Korean girl)
This article, I found it very interesting.
What I want to share:

clock gene: sequence of bases which codes for a protein which regulates the circadian rhythm

Photoreceptor; def. rod cell and rhodopsin reaction description or how impulse is sent to the visual cortex

Para 4 : stored energy of plants - hydrolysis of starch
photoreceptor in plants - IAA for growth

Para 7: as written below the image, the master clock- hypothalamus is affected
the dopaminergic neurons and some other kind of neurones are located in the part of hypothalamus, If the hypothalamus is affected by jet lag, the imbalance of neurotransmitters occurs, leading to many diseases and accelerating the progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

Para 8 ;statin- reduces blood cholesterol, may potentially ask about atherosclerosis/ heart disease (CVD)

Para 11 ; clock gene, isolating the gene - restriction enzyme

Para 12; identifying the clock gene- the scientist may have used the ' human genome project'

Para 13; gene mutation- change in sequence of bases in the DNA
genetic markers- radioactive labelling, fluorescent tag, stain(?)
the mapping experiment - electrophoresis (probably)

Box 1 ; mutation occured in the 'period gene' - nonsense = nonsense mutation is a pointmutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stopc odon ( **** this maybe important, I just researched the definition)
missense codon= missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
These mutation affected the circadian rhythm of different strain of flies

Para 14; sequencing the gene- also human genome project
genetic expression of protein gene to produce PER protein.Switching the gene on and off changes the level of PER in the neuron

Box 2; PER's role- may act as a pump ( didnt specify for which ion it works)
may act as a proteoglycan which act as connection between cells through gap junction
Transcription factor involved- so mRNA produced, more translation, more protein (PER) synthesized

Para 15; gene expression

Para 6- TIM which is another protein can pass through the PER pump and ( maybe act as a transcription factor of a repressor) to swtich off the period gene

Box 3 ; Im not sure if they are refering the protein kinase cascade to ' regulated protein phosphorylation'
post translational modification- golgi apparatus
DBT- phosphorylates the PER and increases degradation of PER
the light sensitive CRY- binds to TIM and leads to degradation of TIM ( by protease enzymes)
hm so if TIM degrades, period gene is not turned off ( PER is produced) however when the morning arrives, the PER is degraded by DBT anyways
Therefore the level of PER is high at night, low in day.

Para 17- different organisms have diff gene/ protein ( may ask ethical questions??)

Para 18 ; human skin cell - somatic cells ( just in case )
idea of environmental stimuli may affect genetic expression

Para 19; Hypothalamus
Rod cells, rhodopsin
( may ask ocular dominance column/ or hubel and wiesel's experiment as there's some unfortunate people who's lost their sight referred in the article)

Para 20 ; individual cells ( definition of tissue- similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function
organ- group of tissues in a livingorganism that have been adapted to perform a specific function )

Box 4; clock gene affects the production of hormones, and control of Gluconeogenesis ( pyruvate converted into glucose)
imbalance of hormones affects the brain function, circadian dysfunction ect ect. Obviously, because hormones control the neurotransmitters.
Imbalance in neurotransmitters cause disease such as depression (serotonin), Alzheimer (orexin< no need to remember), Parkinson ( dopamine)
Due to my research most of these neurones are found in the midbrain ( the hypothalamus) that's wjy the hypothalamus is referred as the Master clock.

Para 22; ATP- the source of energy!! May ask question about the role of ATP for any reactions or how it is made, ( if in the mitochondria , def. krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation coming out)

Box 5; may ask question to draw a graph for the K+ ion level and the time of the day, as there were graph questions in many of the number 7
graph y-axis = K+ level, x-axis = night to day, it is positive correlation
if another graph, y-axis = circadian rhythm x-axis = K+ content, it is negative correlation

Para 24; evolution- change in characteristic of species over generation due to genetic mutation/ variation. Advantageous alleles are 'conserved', this is natural selection!

Phew, I hope this one helps anyone who's not read the articles, or read it briefly. Took me time to analyse what's gonna come out and personally, number 7 is a nightmare to me. Hope everyone get many many marks from number 7!
This is honestly v v useful. thank u so much for sharinngg!
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Hedaya Mahrous
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#39
A bunch of thanks
That really helped me in dealing with the article but I have some doubts regarding ur analysis to the article-related predicted questions..
So could u please help in clarifying these doubts:

"Para 4 : stored energy of plants - hydrolysis of starch"
(any idea about the steps of the process of STARCH HYDROLYSIS??)

"photoreceptor in plants - IAA for growth"
(how is the phytochromes (photoreceptors) in the plant leaves related to the growth caused by IAA?)

"Para 11 ; clock gene, isolating the gene - restriction enzyme"
(what are the steps of the process of isolating the clock gene?? Are they the same as the steps of gene modification studied in the syllabus??)

"Para 12; identifying the clock gene- the scientist may have used the ' human genome project'"
(how this identification could be done??)

"Para 14; sequencing the gene- also human genome project"
(can u plz state the steps of gene sequencing?)

"Para 15; gene expression"
(I could not understand what should we know about gene expression or how the question could come?)

"Box 3 ; I'm not sure if they are referring the protein kinase cascade to ' regulated protein phosphorylation'"
(what is the protein kinase cascade, it is not in the syllabus, can u explain it briefly please).

"Para 17- different organisms have diff gene/ protein ( may ask ethical questions??)"
(HOW?? Can u state an example).

"Para 19; Hypothalamus Rod cells, rhodopsin (may ask ocular dominance column)"
(what is the ocular dominance column??)

Thanks in advance.
I wish u the best of luck.
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Hridita Bal
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#40
(Original post by The Korean girl)
This article, I found it very interesting.
What I want to share:

clock gene: sequence of bases which codes for a protein which regulates the circadian rhythm

Photoreceptor; def. rod cell and rhodopsin reaction description or how impulse is sent to the visual cortex

Para 4 : stored energy of plants - hydrolysis of starch
photoreceptor in plants - IAA for growth

Para 7: as written below the image, the master clock- hypothalamus is affected
the dopaminergic neurons and some other kind of neurones are located in the part of hypothalamus, If the hypothalamus is affected by jet lag, the imbalance of neurotransmitters occurs, leading to many diseases and accelerating the progression of neurodegenerative disorders.

Para 8 ;statin- reduces blood cholesterol, may potentially ask about atherosclerosis/ heart disease (CVD)

Para 11 ; clock gene, isolating the gene - restriction enzyme

Para 12; identifying the clock gene- the scientist may have used the ' human genome project'

Para 13; gene mutation- change in sequence of bases in the DNA
genetic markers- radioactive labelling, fluorescent tag, stain(?)
the mapping experiment - electrophoresis (probably)

Box 1 ; mutation occured in the 'period gene' - nonsense = nonsense mutation is a pointmutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stopc odon ( **** this maybe important, I just researched the definition)
missense codon= missense mutation is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide change results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
These mutation affected the circadian rhythm of different strain of flies

Para 14; sequencing the gene- also human genome project
genetic expression of protein gene to produce PER protein.Switching the gene on and off changes the level of PER in the neuron

Box 2; PER's role- may act as a pump ( didnt specify for which ion it works)
may act as a proteoglycan which act as connection between cells through gap junction
Transcription factor involved- so mRNA produced, more translation, more protein (PER) synthesized

Para 15; gene expression

Para 6- TIM which is another protein can pass through the PER pump and ( maybe act as a transcription factor of a repressor) to swtich off the period gene

Box 3 ; Im not sure if they are refering the protein kinase cascade to ' regulated protein phosphorylation'
post translational modification- golgi apparatus
DBT- phosphorylates the PER and increases degradation of PER
the light sensitive CRY- binds to TIM and leads to degradation of TIM ( by protease enzymes)
hm so if TIM degrades, period gene is not turned off ( PER is produced) however when the morning arrives, the PER is degraded by DBT anyways
Therefore the level of PER is high at night, low in day.

Para 17- different organisms have diff gene/ protein ( may ask ethical questions??)

Para 18 ; human skin cell - somatic cells ( just in case )
idea of environmental stimuli may affect genetic expression

Para 19; Hypothalamus
Rod cells, rhodopsin
( may ask ocular dominance column/ or hubel and wiesel's experiment as there's some unfortunate people who's lost their sight referred in the article)

Para 20 ; individual cells ( definition of tissue- similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function
organ- group of tissues in a livingorganism that have been adapted to perform a specific function )

Box 4; clock gene affects the production of hormones, and control of Gluconeogenesis ( pyruvate converted into glucose)
imbalance of hormones affects the brain function, circadian dysfunction ect ect. Obviously, because hormones control the neurotransmitters.
Imbalance in neurotransmitters cause disease such as depression (serotonin), Alzheimer (orexin< no need to remember), Parkinson ( dopamine)
Due to my research most of these neurones are found in the midbrain ( the hypothalamus) that's wjy the hypothalamus is referred as the Master clock.

Para 22; ATP- the source of energy!! May ask question about the role of ATP for any reactions or how it is made, ( if in the mitochondria , def. krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation coming out)

Box 5; may ask question to draw a graph for the K+ ion level and the time of the day, as there were graph questions in many of the number 7
graph y-axis = K+ level, x-axis = night to day, it is positive correlation
if another graph, y-axis = circadian rhythm x-axis = K+ content, it is negative correlation

Para 24; evolution- change in characteristic of species over generation due to genetic mutation/ variation. Advantageous alleles are 'conserved', this is natural selection!

Phew, I hope this one helps anyone who's not read the articles, or read it briefly. Took me time to analyse what's gonna come out and personally, number 7 is a nightmare to me. Hope everyone get many many marks from number 7!
Did you mean that IAA are photoreceptors?
Phytochromes like Pfr amd Pr are the photoreceptors
IAA is a chemical
And well done! You prepared well!😁
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