How are photons produced in an X-Ray tube?

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Ambitious1999
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I know that photons are produced when excited electrons return to their normal electron shells. For instance when electrons are excited in a light bulb filament, they emit light photons when returning to their normal energy levels.
But in an X-ray tube electrons are fired from a cathode to a metal anode target at 45 degrees.
How do these electrons produce X-ray photons it they have left their original atoms at the cathode 20 or 30mm away, they are not going to return to their original atoms. So what happens when an electron smashes into the target anode? How does it produce photons?
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cakeboi
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It will be the electrons in the anode that will be excited and then de-excited. Photons will be produced provided that the electrons have sufficient energy.
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Eimmanuel
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(Original post by Ambitious1999)
I know that photons are produced when excited electrons return to their normal electron shells. For instance when electrons are excited in a light bulb filament, they emit light photons when returning to their normal energy levels.
But in an X-ray tube electrons are fired from a cathode to a metal anode target at 45 degrees.
How do these electrons produce X-ray photons it they have left their original atoms at the cathode 20 or 30mm away, they are not going to return to their original atoms. So what happens when an electron smashes into the target anode? How does it produce photons?

I think you are referring to the X-ray characteristics.

When an incident electron strikes the target anode, it may knock off an innermost electron in a target atom in the anode completely out of the atom. As the electrons from the outer shell in the same atom transit downward to fill the vacancy, a photon would be emitted.

The following webpage would talk more about it:
https://www.antonine-education.co.uk...hys_page_7.htm
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