Can someone explain distillation? Watch
But during the fractional distillation, a fractionating column with valves at different teperarture regions is used. When there are more than 2 components to be separated this method can be used. There is a boiling chamber where the mixture of compounds is heated to obtain vapour. Then the vapours of components will go through so called fractionated column. When the vapours are going upward the temperature of the vapours goes down. When the temperature of the vapour is less than a boiling point of one component, that will be condensed at that temperature region while the vapours of other components are going upward. The components which get condensed at the bottom part of the column are the components with higher boiling points. Examples for the fractional distillation are separtion of gases (N2, O2, Ar) from natural air and separation of hydrocarbons from crude oil.