Kidneys Watch

shadowhhh
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Can someone please tell me the basic functions of the kidneys? not really sure about it
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Pinez772
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They clean the blood and make urine
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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Hi,

1. Excretion of waste matter e.g. urea, creatinine, uric acid [all nitrogen-containing molecules]
2. pH balance - maintaining the normal pH of blood of 7.36-7.42
3. Water balance (controlled by ADH from the pituitary gland which acts on the juxtaglomerular cells in the renal medulla).
4. Maintenance of serum osmolality [in chronic renal failure, "leakage" of albumin into the urine leads to drop in osmolality with resultant oedema.
5. Control of electrolytes in the body e.g.by Na+, K+ -ATPase in proximal tubules [modulated by the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin axis.] controls sodium and potassium levels [serum potassium = 3.5-5.0 mmoles/l; sodium = 135-150 mmoles/l]; control of calcium levels - this is disrupted in renal failure.
6. Activation of vitamin D - kidney converts 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (the first [25-] hydroxylation of cholecalciferol takes place in the liver.
7. Secretion of haematopoietin (which then acts on the bone marrow to stimulate synthesis of haemoglobin [which requires iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and copper].

I hope this helps!
M (former medical student)
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shadowhhh
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Thank youuuu <3
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Ambitious1999
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(Original post by shadowhhh)
Can someone please tell me the basic functions of the kidneys? not really sure about it
Blood enters the kidneys from the Glomerulus through the bowmans capsule here the liquid portion is removed but no blood cells get through. This is basically filtration.

The fluid then enters the nephron and water is removed by osmosis to go back to the blood and also important minerals are reabsorbed. The urea and other waste concentrates and is excreted.
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by macpatgh-Sheldon)
Hi,

1. Excretion of waste matter e.g. urea, creatinine, uric acid [all nitrogen-containing molecules]
2. pH balance - maintaining the normal pH of blood of 7.36-7.42
3. Water balance (controlled by ADH from the pituitary gland which acts on the juxtaglomerular cells in the renal medulla).
4. Maintenance of serum osmolality [in chronic renal failure, "leakage" of albumin into the urine leads to drop in osmolality with resultant oedema.
5. Control of electrolytes in the body e.g.by Na+, K+ -ATPase in proximal tubules [modulated by the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin axis.] controls sodium and potassium levels [serum potassium = 3.5-5.0 mmoles/l; sodium = 135-150 mmoles/l]; control of calcium levels - this is disrupted in renal failure.
6. Activation of vitamin D - kidney converts 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (the first [25-] hydroxylation of cholecalciferol takes place in the liver.
7. Secretion of haematopoietin (which then acts on the bone marrow to stimulate synthesis of haemoglobin [which requires iron, folic acid, vitamin B12 and copper].

I hope this helps!
M (former medical student)
Excellent answer. I’d also just add that the kidneys also play a role in the regulation of blood pressure and volume via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Also, the kidney is important in the elimination of drugs.

I like to split kidney functions up into homeostatic/excretory functions (i.e. elimination of waste products, osmoregulation, electrolyte homeostasis, acid-base regulation, excretion of drugs) and endocrine functions (i.e. blood pressure, production of vitamin D, and production of erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cells).
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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(Original post by Jpw1097)
Excellent answer. I’d also just add that the kidneys also play a role in the regulation of blood pressure and volume via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Also, the kidney is important in the elimination of drugs.

I like to split kidney functions up into homeostatic/excretory functions (i.e. elimination of waste products, osmoregulation, electrolyte homeostasis, acid-base regulation, excretion of drugs) and endocrine functions (i.e. blood pressure, production of vitamin D, and production of erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cells).
Hi budding doc (!),

May I say thank you for your kind words, but also for mentioning erythropoietin (the correct word) - my memory failed there and I coined a word of my own (haematopoietin haha!) - OP: (from Cliff Richard and the Shadowshhh?? ) please take note of this error on my part.
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Jpw1097
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(Original post by macpatgh-Sheldon)
Hi budding doc (!),

May I say thank you for your kind words, but also for mentioning erythropoietin (the correct word) - my memory failed there and I coined a word of my own (haematopoietin haha!) - OP: (from Cliff Richard and the Shadowshhh?? ) please take note of this error on my part.
I’d never heard of haematopoietin before but it does seem like it is a synonym, so both are correct.
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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(Original post by Jpw1097)
I’d never heard of haematopoietin before but it does seem like it is a synonym, so both are correct.
Thanks for that cos it jogged my memory - I remembered that I had read it in my haematology book - since I notice that you are similar to myself in some ways (!) (I have been nicknamed "detail friek" by some lecturers in my student days!), I attach below (new post from phone), some more info regarding this.

M
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macpatgh-Sheldon
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