(Original post by Bakboy666)
Soz I tried to make it into a pdf file just wasn’t happening for me 😬. I have added a few more extra bits. Hope this helps
From a pragmatic personal perspective taken from a student undertaking studies in
teaching English, it is very encouraging to write an essay on the implications of the spread of
English as a global language. Clearly a very important implication for me is that of my
expanded opportunities as an English Language teacher.
Before considering the implications, what does it mean for a language to become
“Global” and what evidence do we have that English has attained this?
David Crystal in his book “English as a Global Language” states “A language achieves a
genuinely global status when it develops a special role that is recognised in every country.”
(2003: 3) Crystal indicates that English is not the most significant global language because it
is the mother tongue in the most countries, as Spanish holds that position, but rather it is
because of the special roles English plays within countries. He indicates that there are two
main ways that countries do this. Firstly they make English an official language where it is
used in areas like the law, government and education. “English ...now has some kind of
special status in over seventy countries. This is far more than the status achieved by any
other language.” (2003: 4)
Secondly English is given status as the preferred foreign, second or additional
language taught in schools or made available and desirable to be learnt within the
community generally. “English is now the language most widely taught as a foreign language
– in over 100 countries...and in most of these countries it is emerging as the chief foreign
language to be encountered in schools, often displacing another language in the process.”
Crystal cements the position of English by indicating that around a quarter of the world’s
population are either fluent or competent in its use. (2003:6)
The diverse uses for English, the implications for different cultures, the changing nature of
the language itself and the roles it plays in different communities are all infinitely complex.
Kachru’s ‘Three Circle’ model of World Englishes 1992, is a made to separate and
identifies the several language groups, and why they use the English Language. His
‘Expanding Circle’ he labels English being used for diplomatic, tourism alongside commercial
purposes. It has been stated by Kachru how countries within the expanding circle
are dependent on the standards fixed by native speakers within the Inner
Circle. Kachru labels the ‘Outer Circle’, as SE is used as the most convenient tool for
education and businesses. Standard variety within ELT is necessary for it’s members of the
outer and expanding circle in order for people to further progress in paths such as
Business and Communication. Braj Kachru’s circle has been criticized for many reasons such
as it being too simple and that the boundaries are merging together and as individuals move, which can lead to languages moving with them creating hybrids. Those whom no longer classify themselves in Kachru’s circle at all and acquire English on top of their first language could lead to ELT becoming irrelevant and unnecessary, as students might have very minimal contact to no contact with speakers of the English language. Students whom no longer use English as a Lingua Franca could then have a lack motivation for these particular students to learn the English Language, especially in a strict, non flexible standard English form.
if a student struggles or gets confused by a certain aspect of the English language, a non-native speaking teacher may be able to help the student with
‘GELT’ is an endonormative language approach, meaning its language norms are self
provided. ‘GELT’ consists of teaching many varied and diverse forms of the English language
and multiple forms of competence. It can be taught by both non-native speakers as well as
native speakers. An example is
more ease, as the teacher themselves have undertaken the same acquisition process the student is currently undertaking.
teachers may be hesitant to change their SE teaching paradigm, into more flexible diverse approaches such as ‘GELT’.
some issues that do arise with ‘GELT’, lack of resources is a main significant issue, as there is minimal materials and
workings for teachers to use within their classes; which creates a sense of illegitimacy within the realms of teaching.
Language Assessments such as (IELTS) and (TOEFL) are extremely popular and are within foreign countries as they are based on native English standards meaning people are able to use these qualifications in countries worldwide, especially in the UK and America. However, the ‘GELT’ approaches might be viewed as too much of a relaxed and flexible approach when it comes to the standards of these examinations. SE’ ELT methods, are taught to meet the standard and conditions in order to complete these examinations successfully.
In favour of GELT practices, it can be argued that Standard English ELT provides strong contradiction against the nature of what the English Language should be: evolving and fluctuating. Rose, H. and Galloway, N. (2017) states
A Loss and lack of personal and or cultural identity, can be a major issue individuals face whilst learning ‘SE’ forms.
. Also the ratio of Non Native speakers to native speakers of English is significantly big, 3-1 speakers being non natives. If
GELT was to dominate over ELT, there would be more teachers eligible to teach as GELT enables both Natives and Non Natives to teach internationally.
The international education system like universities are now following criteria’s that standard English Language teaching are known to favour, such as taking part in approaches of Standard English Language teaching, have an aspect of positive prejudice towards native
which possibly is more practical to non- native speakers,
This skill being performed by teachers could prove how
previous skills learnt can have a positive effect on the way students are taught English.
The teaching of ‘GELT’ can be seen as breaking the traditional established forms. For
example, Bex, Tony; Watts, Richard J book, 1999 ‘Standard English the Widening Debate’ its
stated “Until 1945 Standard British English was practically the only EFL norm at most
With standard English holding such high importance in prior teachings such as
historical teachings, could mean that particular individuals, for instance teachers may be
Even though Global English Language Teaching is a practice
Debating Standard Language
Ideology in the Classroom it states “linguistic evidence shows language to be highly
adaptable and constantly changing, ELT is underpinned by a version of English that is
portrayed as static and more resistant to change”.
This quote contradicts the view of Standard English although being an traditional
grammatically correct form, it can be regarded as particularly constricting and unexpressive.
Individuals will no longer be using the local accent or colloquial
language, as Standard English does not recognize this and as it is deemed to be the form of
English that can lead to a wider spread of opportunities like jobs, individuals become more
focused in achieving and learning standard English correctly
speaking teachers of the language, over the non-native English speaking teachers. This positive preconceived opinion of native speakers is one held by both staff and parents of students. This can lead to an idea of Native English being deemed as the only legitimate English. Martinez Agudo, Juan de Dios. (2017) P.186, refers to a study conducted by Benke and Medgyes (2005), assessing 422 English Language acquisition student’s feedback: NSTs were considered perfect models for imitation, fully able to teach conversation classes and “more capable of getting their learners to speak’.This can create a prescriptivist mindset to language as a whole and endorses a standard language ideology allowing native English perceived as the ‘correct’ form of the English Language use, even though there is no form that is legitimised as being ‘correct’.
However, there is no wrong or right form when it comes to the English Language and the idea towards accents and how an individual interacts with one when using the English Language with an accent was overlooked in Dudeney, Gavin; Hockly, Nicky English language acquisition book: 2009 - ‘Learning English as a Foreign Language for Dummies’, “
, and so we use a range of accents on the audio CD.” This English Language Teaching book is successful at removing the likelihood of
difficulty of learning from, and understanding teachers with different accents. Auditory learning is a feature which can help students who are struggling to grasp an understanding of their teacher, and provides another approach catered to their needs.
Agudo, Juan de Dios Martinez, De Gruyter, (2017) P. 15, make a proposal questioning the legitimacy of the native English Language as a measuring standard. ‘Problems arise when the native-user based grammars are seen as correct or standard language and other uses of the language are measured against them’. Agudo and Martinez emphasize the idea that language is unpredictable.
Moving forward it is apparent that Native English can also be viewed as an unachievable aspect to fully grasp for Non Native English Speakers. The day to day progression of the English Language with the increase of slang, colloquialism, pejoration and ameliorations meaning it is becoming harder to define what the Native English Language really consists of.
You are just
as likely to use English to communicate with non-English speakers in other countries as to
communicate with English speakers in the UK
Students contemplating on whether to study in the UK, need a better focus on broader
range of varieties of English’s because some individuals may have a large volume of contact
with English native speakers themselves.
English teachers abroad can still have a traditional
attitude towards how English Language Teaching is expected to be taught to Non-Native
English Speaker’s as it can make it difficult for methods such as ‘GELT’ to be introduced.