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Report Thread starter 1 year ago
I'm getting really confused on the order of the immune response, would someone be able help?

This is what I've got so far:
1. Barriers (e.g. skin).
2. Fevers.
3. Blood clotting/wound repair/inflammatory response.
4. Phagocytosis --> APCs produced.
5. Cytokines/opsonins produced.
6. More phagocytosis due to cytokines/opsonins --> more APCs produced.
7. The antigens on APCs and/or on toxins produce antibodies.
8. These antibodies bind to pathogens (therefore acting as both agglutinins and antitoxins), and then this antibody binds to the complementary antigen to form an antigen-antibody complex, which can lead to agglutination, opsonisation, and neutralisation.
9. Production of lymphocytes from stem cells in the bone marrow. B cells mature in bone marrow, T cells mature in thymus gland.
10. Clonal selection: T lymphocyte binds to antigen on APC, causing activation of T lymphocytes.
11. Clonal expansion – T lymphocytes divide by mitosis to produce T helper cells, T killer cells (which produce perforin that kills the pathogen), T regulator cells (which suppress the immune system once pathogen has been eliminated) and T memory cells (which provide immunological memory).
12. T helper cell binds to APC, which causes these t helper cells to produce proteins called interleukins.
13. Interleukins activate B lymphocytes.
14. Antibody on B lymphocyte binds with an antigen to form an antigen-antibody complex.
15. Steps 13 & 14 activate B lymphocytes = clonal selection.
16. B lymphocytes divide by mitosis to form B memory cells (which provide immunological memory) and B effector cells = clonal expansion.
17. B effector cells divide to form plasma cells, which produce many antibodies specific to the antigen on the invading pathogen, therefore forming many antigen-antibody complexes that act as opsonins so these complexes are easily engulfed and digested by phagocytes.

Is this correct and is there anything I'm missing? I don't need too much detail as I'm just trying to get a rough outline first that I can then add further detail to later. I find I need to be able to map it all out in my head before I can add all the detail in. Thank you so much if you do help, I know it's a big ask but it would be so so much appreciated!
Last edited by Sophie.cerys; 1 year ago
Badges: 20
Report 1 year ago
Hi your friend Sheldon again! (remember the creation of the universe? ) - Hope you are well Sophie! Sorry this website ( is keeping on spamming you - have you tried FOC antivirus? (For people like us who are on a student budget, Avast [made in Holland] is a good option ).

I think you have covered more there than I probably could (!), especially as you say you "don't need too much detail"!

Just one comment I would add:

You have classified the immune response into non-specific and specific: there are other more conventional ways of doing it:
a) Innate and Adaptive (which overlaps a bit with your choice)
b) Cell-mediated (mainly executed by T lymphocytes) and Humoral (B lymphocytes).

One Q, if it is OK to ask: Are you doing a degree in biology or is this for A level? The level of detail needed will, of course, depend on this (If doing a the first, some knowledge of the structure of an antibody (Y-shaped protein with 4 polypeptide chains: two heavy chains and two light chains joined by disulphide bridges, and the five main types of antibody, namely IgA (in secretions so has a "secretory piece"), IgD, IgE (involved in allergic reactions i.e. Type I = immediate-type hypersensitivity), IgG (small molecule so easily crosses placenta to confer immunity to unborn baby) and IgM (has multiple binding sites for antigen)) might be useful to know) [Ig = immunoglobulin, which forms the gamma portion of serum globulin; other globulins include ceruloplasmin, the protein that binds copper, which is an alpha2-globulin [deficient in Wilson's disease]]. Hold on! Before I start typing even more detail than your comoprehensive description, please sol ("say out loud"): "Sheldon, shut up please!".


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