AQA A-level Philosophy 7172 - Paper 2: The metaphysics... 10th June 2019

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AQA A-level Philosophy 7172 - Paper 2: The metaphysics of God and the metaphysics of mind - 10th June

Exam technique, night before breakdowns and discussion regarding this exam... It's all here :gthumb: Feel free to add resources to the thread as well as anything that may be helpful to others :smartass:

This thread covers the following papers:
  • 7172 Paper 2: The metaphysics of God and the metaphysics of mind (new) 3h 10 June 2019 am
:rave:

The official specification: https://filestore.aqa.org.uk/resourc...72-SP-2017.PDF
Spoiler:
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Paper 2: The metaphysics of God and the metaphysics of mind
What's assessed
Sections 3 and 4

3. Metaphysics of God
4. Metaphysics of mind


Specimen and past papers:
https://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/phil...ment-resources
:goodluck:

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username2851718
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Making my revision guide by writing up answers to past papers/ possible questions, instead of notes.
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username2427341
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Thank you for this thread!
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ZP731
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Im a bit stuck with all the criticisms for dualism, I don't know which textbook you are using but in class we used the hodder one and now i'm trying to add to my notes from the routledge one and have gotten myself very confused because it's all set out differently. Basically how many different types of dualism are there?

Is epiphenomenalist dualism a subcategory of either substance or property or is it a type of dualism in itself? Also, why in the text book in the criticisms of dualism does it have some criticisms and then it has more criticisms for interactionist dualism, i'm really confused! I thought all dualism was interactionist? Can someone please just explain the key differences between all of these, I understand the difference between substance and property but am a bit lost with all the other ones and what criticisms go with what.
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(Original post by ZP731)
Im a bit stuck with all the criticisms for dualism, I don't know which textbook you are using but in class we used the hodder one and now i'm trying to add to my notes from the routledge one and have gotten myself very confused because it's all set out differently. Basically how many different types of dualism are there?

Is epiphenomenalist dualism a subcategory of either substance or property or is it a type of dualism in itself? Also, why in the text book in the criticisms of dualism does it have some criticisms and then it has more criticisms for interactionist dualism, i'm really confused! I thought all dualism was interactionist? Can someone please just explain the key differences between all of these, I understand the difference between substance and property but am a bit lost with all the other ones and what criticisms go with what.
Same I'm so confused! Is Interactionist a sub category of substance dualism? Coz substance dualism says that the mind and body do not interact isn't it Joe312
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username2427341
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Our teacher hasn't even taught us epiphenomenalism and there's a whole section on it. Wth Im gonna give up lol this subject is so longg
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Does property dualism say the mind and body interact? Ik the mind is a property of the brain.
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(Original post by *Alisha*)
Same I'm so confused! Is Interactionist a sub category of substance dualism? Coz substance dualism says that the mind and body do not interact isn't it Joe312
Substance dualism = the mind and body are separate mental (defined by thinking) and physical (defined by extension) substances
Property dualism = there is only one physical substance but it can have both physical and mental properties. Those mental properties cannot be reduced to physical properties.

These theories can furthermore then either hold that the mental and physical interact or do not interact. Epiphenomenalism is the non-interactionist view that the mental is causally inert/inefficacious. So you can have:

Interactionist substance dualism
non-interactionist (epiphenomenalist) substance dualism
interactionist property dualism
non-interactionist (epiphenomenalist) property dualism.
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(Original post by Joe312)
Substance dualism = the mind and body are separate mental (defined by thinking) and physical (defined by extension) substances
Property dualism = there is only one physical substance but it can have both physical and mental properties. Those mental properties cannot be reduced to physical properties.

These theories can furthermore then either hold that the mental and physical interact or do not interact. Epiphenomenalism is the non-interactionist view that the mental is causally inert/inefficacious. So you can have:

Interactionist substance dualism
non-interactionist (epiphenomenalist) substance dualism
interactionist property dualism
non-interactionist (epiphenomenalist) property dualism.
Thanks! Do direct realists respond to the problem of hallucination by arguing that hallucinations are misinterpretations of the Mind whereas physical objects cause veridical perceptions. Just because we cannot tell the difference between veridical and hallucinatory perceptions doesn't mean the experience is different?
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(Original post by username2427341)
Thanks! Do direct realists respond to the problem of hallucination by arguing that hallucinations are misinterpretations of the Mind whereas physical objects cause veridical perceptions. Just because we cannot tell the difference between veridical and hallucinatory perceptions doesn't mean the experience is different?
Yes that's the disjunctive theory of perception and it works as a response fine.
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(Original post by ZP731)
Im a bit stuck with all the criticisms for dualism, I don't know which textbook you are using but in class we used the hodder one and now i'm trying to add to my notes from the routledge one and have gotten myself very confused because it's all set out differently. Basically how many different types of dualism are there?

Is epiphenomenalist dualism a subcategory of either substance or property or is it a type of dualism in itself? Also, why in the text book in the criticisms of dualism does it have some criticisms and then it has more criticisms for interactionist dualism, i'm really confused! I thought all dualism was interactionist? Can someone please just explain the key differences between all of these, I understand the difference between substance and property but am a bit lost with all the other ones and what criticisms go with what.
If we were to break up the dualist theories maybe that might clear up some confusion:
So firstly there are two major types of dualism, interactionist and epiphenomenalist (for the AQA course only anyways)

The category 'interactionist' dualism means that the mind and the body are causally affecting. Therefore, certain physical acts in the body cause mental states - and certain mental states can cause the body to experience said states.

To use an example would be: if I stab you; (most likely) you will be sad; hence the physical act of the neurons in your body to designate pain have caused a mental state. In turn if you're sad; you'd like to cry: hence the mental state of sadness has caused you to wail and make noises

Epiphenomenalist dualists, whilst still agreeing that the mind and body are separate, they believe that the mind is not causally affecting of the body, believing that the mind is just a by-product of the functionings of the body. So whilst you may think that you wish to make noises with your mental - its just your physical giving the by-product of mental states. A nice way of putting it would be like the mind being the fan audience in a saga about your life - you may think that you control what is happening, but its just your physical conducting the tasks and proverbially narrating it to you.

I hope that made sense - if not please feel free to ask me to clarify and I'll try my best!
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Is Descartes trademark from year one a part of his cosmological argument? I'm a bit confused
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Sorry haven't been on here for a while but thanks makes sense now
(Original post by thirtycmruler)
If we were to break up the dualist theories maybe that might clear up some confusion:
So firstly there are two major types of dualism, interactionist and epiphenomenalist (for the AQA course only anyways)

The category 'interactionist' dualism means that the mind and the body are causally affecting. Therefore, certain physical acts in the body cause mental states - and certain mental states can cause the body to experience said states.

To use an example would be: if I stab you; (most likely) you will be sad; hence the physical act of the neurons in your body to designate pain have caused a mental state. In turn if you're sad; you'd like to cry: hence the mental state of sadness has caused you to wail and make noises

Epiphenomenalist dualists, whilst still agreeing that the mind and body are separate, they believe that the mind is not causally affecting of the body, believing that the mind is just a by-product of the functionings of the body. So whilst you may think that you wish to make noises with your mental - its just your physical giving the by-product of mental states. A nice way of putting it would be like the mind being the fan audience in a saga about your life - you may think that you control what is happening, but its just your physical conducting the tasks and proverbially narrating it to you.

I hope that made sense - if not please feel free to ask me to clarify and I'll try my best!
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s0nder
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hi, does anyone have any resources for philosophy of mind they'd mind sharing/explaining? Or a comparison between al the different theories? I'm really struggling to understand it
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(Original post by s0nder)
hi, does anyone have any resources for philosophy of mind they'd mind sharing/explaining? Or a comparison between al the different theories? I'm really struggling to understand it
There are three types of things you can talk about for comparisons:

1. Comparison in the content. E.g. eliminative materialism is non-reductive, type identity theory is.
2. Comparison in the criticisms. E.g. type identity theory has the issue of multiple realisibility. Eliminative materialism does not.
3. Comparison between the theories and other theories. E.g. neither eliminative materialism nor identity theory are dualist, nor do they reduce the mental to behaviour like behaviourism does.

There are some resources here:

https://alevelphilosophyandreligion.com/
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Thank you!!
(Original post by Joe312)
There are three types of things you can talk about for comparisons:

1. Comparison in the content. E.g. eliminative materialism is non-reductive, type identity theory is.
2. Comparison in the criticisms. E.g. type identity theory has the issue of multiple realisibility. Eliminative materialism does not.
3. Comparison between the theories and other theories. E.g. neither eliminative materialism nor identity theory are dualist, nor do they reduce the mental to behaviour like behaviourism does.

There are some resources here:

https://alevelphilosophyandreligion.com/
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fg6167
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anyone know what the philosophy of mind 25 markers could roughly be? especially in relation to the 'Issues' part of the syllabus. thanks
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Does substance / property dualism / philosophical behaviourism / functionalism / MIBIT / Eliminatvism / provide a convincing or correct account of mental states
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god this paper is soooo f***ing boring. Mind is alright but religion. Nope
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So the 'Issues' section couldn't be directly addressed by a 25 marker?
(Original post by Nathankaye01)
Does substance / property dualism / philosophical behaviourism / functionalism / MIBIT / Eliminatvism / provide a convincing or correct account of mental states
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