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What are the stalked particles on the inner membrane of the mitochondria ?

Help please
Within the inner membrane of the mitochondria are carrier proteins. Attached to each of these is a molecule of ATP synthetase (creating the 'stalk'). This is very important in the last stage of respiration, known as the electron transport chain.

Firstly, reduced NAD donates electrons to electron carriers, also in the inner membrane. This provides the energy needed for the proton pumps to pump protons (H+ ions) into the inter-membrane space (the space between the inner and outer membrane). This means that the concentration of protons in the inter-membrane space is much higher than the concentration of protons in the mitochondrial matrix. This creates an electrochemical gradient. Therefore, the protons move passively (without energy) down the gradient, via the carrier proteins containing ATP synthase, back into the mitochondrial matrix. The movement of protons (H+ ions) through the ATP synthase molecule, creates energy. This energy is used to facilitate the reaction between ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate) forming ATP. This ATP is then used to provide energy in cellular processes.

Sorry if its too complicated, I've tried to explain it in the best way I can. Hope this helps :smile:
Reply 2
Original post by JessNaomi19600
Within the inner membrane of the mitochondria are carrier proteins. Attached to each of these is a molecule of ATP synthetase (creating the 'stalk'). This is very important in the last stage of respiration, known as the electron transport chain.

Firstly, reduced NAD donates electrons to electron carriers, also in the inner membrane. This provides the energy needed for the proton pumps to pump protons (H+ ions) into the inter-membrane space (the space between the inner and outer membrane). This means that the concentration of protons in the inter-membrane space is much higher than the concentration of protons in the mitochondrial matrix. This creates an electrochemical gradient. Therefore, the protons move passively (without energy) down the gradient, via the carrier proteins containing ATP synthase, back into the mitochondrial matrix. The movement of protons (H+ ions) through the ATP synthase molecule, creates energy. This energy is used to facilitate the reaction between ADP and Pi (inorganic phosphate) forming ATP. This ATP is then used to provide energy in cellular processes.

Sorry if its too complicated, I've tried to explain it in the best way I can. Hope this helps :smile:


No I understood, thank you. But just to make sure I understand, the electron carriers and the ATP synthase channels together are called stalked particles ? In a mark scheme answer to a question about how the H+ concentration allowed ATP formation ,I read that chemiosmosis and ATP formation occurs on stalked particles so I'm not quite sure how to use the term.
Original post by Leah.J
No I understood, thank you. But just to make sure I understand, the electron carriers and the ATP synthase channels together are called stalked particles ? In a mark scheme answer to a question about how the H+ concentration allowed ATP formation ,I read that chemiosmosis and ATP formation occurs on stalked particles so I'm not quite sure how to use the term.

Yes, I think so. I would check with your exam board (textbook) to be certain though. Sorry I couldn't be of any more help.
hi i just wanted to say i've read like 3 different textbooks and multiple people have tried to explain this process to me but this has been by far the most helpful
Original post by Leah.J
No I understood, thank you. But just to make sure I understand, the electron carriers and the ATP synthase channels together are called stalked particles ? In a mark scheme answer to a question about how the H+ concentration allowed ATP formation ,I read that chemiosmosis and ATP formation occurs on stalked particles so I'm not quite sure how to use the term.

Hi Leah [long time no see lol - if you are the same Leah from 1 yr+ ago - :colondollar: are you at uni now?!]

Just to put things into perspective for you, each stalked particle [it is known now] is ONE MOLECULE of ATP synthase - it is remarkable that we can actually view a single molecule of an enzyme with an electron microscope - if I remember right, you are a keen student, so just search ATP synthase on google images, and you will see a beautiful pic with the detailed strucxtural components [F1 and others].

Regards & be safe!
M.
Reply 6
Original post by macpatgh-Sheldon
Hi Leah [long time no see lol - if you are the same Leah from 1 yr+ ago - :colondollar: are you at uni now?!]
Just to put things into perspective for you, each stalked particle [it is known now] is ONE MOLECULE of ATP synthase - it is remarkable that we can actually view a single molecule of an enzyme with an electron microscope - if I remember right, you are a keen student, so just search ATP synthase on google images, and you will see a beautiful pic with the detailed strucxtural components [F1 and others].
Regards & be safe!
M.

Thank u so much this is really helpful for my understanding 😁😁😁

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