isabellewalker15
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Why is fluorine a gas at room temperature?
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LuigiMario
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from a random answer somewhere in 2014

The molecules of each substance attract each other through dispersion (London) intermolecular forces.(***)
Whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas depends on the balance between the kinetic energies of the molecules and their intermolecular attractions.
In fluorine, the electrons are tightly held to the nuclei. The electrons have little chance to wander to one side of the molecule, so the London dispersion forces are relatively weak.

As we move from fluorine to iodine, the electrons are further from the nuclei so the electron clouds can more easily distort. The London dispersion forces become progressively stronger.

At a low enough temperature the molecules will all be solids. At a high enough temperature they will all be gases.
It is only at temperatures between -7 °C and 59 °C that fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a solid, and iodine is a solid.



(***) The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction. "the weakest temporary dipole effect"
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LuigiMario
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Oh, and keep away from Flourine . When I did a lot of real world chemical experiment with HF, before taking the (ceramic) bottle out of the cupboard, we used to telephone to the local hospital that we were starting an experiment, and we got all the anti-burn gels ready, just in case.
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isabellewalker15
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Thank you, it was for my AQA paper and I have never seen this answer before. This really helped 😀


(Original post by LuigiMario)
from a random answer somewhere in 2014

The molecules of each substance attract each other through dispersion (London) intermolecular forces.(***)
Whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas depends on the balance between the kinetic energies of the molecules and their intermolecular attractions.
In fluorine, the electrons are tightly held to the nuclei. The electrons have little chance to wander to one side of the molecule, so the London dispersion forces are relatively weak.

As we move from fluorine to iodine, the electrons are further from the nuclei so the electron clouds can more easily distort. The London dispersion forces become progressively stronger.

At a low enough temperature the molecules will all be solids. At a high enough temperature they will all be gases.
It is only at temperatures between -7 °C and 59 °C that fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a solid, and iodine is a solid.



(***) The London dispersion force is the weakest intermolecular force. The London dispersion force is a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles. This force is sometimes called an induced dipole-induced dipole attraction. "the weakest temporary dipole effect"
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Pigster
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(Original post by isabellewalker15)
Why is fluorine a gas at room temperature?
A GCSE level (chemistry) answer would be, F2 has:
weak...
intermolecular forces...
which need little energy to overcome.
i.e. possibly three marking.
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Eimmanuel
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(Original post by isabellewalker15)
Why is fluorine a gas at room temperature?
Hi,
I moved the thread to Chemistry Forum and change the title of the thread to better suit the question that you are asking.
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