AQA GCSE Design & Technology (new) 8552/W - 24 May 2019 [Exam Discussion] Watch

Krishna1601
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Evil Homer
Hey, this is a GCSE Design and Technology thread for the 2019 exams! I hope this can get added to the list!
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Slayingrobin
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(Original post by Krishna1601)
Evil Homer
Hey, this is a GCSE Design and Technology thread for the 2019 exams! I hope this can get added to the list!
Did you get your marks back for the coursework?
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Krishna1601
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well i got a raw mark of 80/100 before i'd handed in the evaluation section so i'm hoping it went up coz our teacher never told my mark after
(Original post by Slayingrobin)
Did you get your marks back for the coursework?
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Evil Homer
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(Original post by Krishna1601)
Evil Homer
Hey, this is a GCSE Design and Technology thread for the 2019 exams! I hope this can get added to the list!
Just given the name a lil spruce up and added to the list

Hope your exam goes well, do you feel prepared for it yet?

EH :evil:
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K0302
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I got 90/100
(Original post by Slayingrobin)
Did you get your marks back for the coursework?
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rke7241
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i got 81/100 on the coursework. meh score, couple kids got full marks in my year. a lot of 90+/100 too. made me feel like shid ngl. i put a lot of effort into it too.
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Slayingrobin
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(Original post by Krishna1601)
well i got a raw mark of 80/100 before i'd handed in the evaluation section so i'm hoping it went up coz our teacher never told my mark after
nice i got 82, nobody got full marks in my class though
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leah2711
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I am screwed for the exam!!
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by leah2711)
I am screwed for the exam!!
Anything you are particularly stuck on? i am a second year undergraduate product design student so will try to answer any questions
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rke7241
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(Original post by CoolCavy)
Anything you are particularly stuck on? i am a second year undergraduate product design student so will try to answer any questions
how do you revise all the stuff like timbers and their properties, i get it all confused.
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by rke7241)
how do you revise all the stuff like timbers and their properties, i get it all confused.

• Wood Classifications:

Softwood = Evergreen timbers that are quick growing and coniferous (retain their leaves in winter). e.g conifers, spruces

Scots pine
Straight-grained softwood but knotty. Light in colour. Fairly strong but easy to work with. Cheap and readily available.
Cheap quality furniture. Used for constructional work and simple joinery.

Parana Pine
Hard and straight-grained. Almost knot free. Fairly strong and durable. Expensive. Pale yellow in colour with red/brown streaks.
Doors and staircases.

Spruce
Creamy-white softwood with small hard knots. Not very durable.
General indoor work, white wood furniture used in bedrooms and kitchens.

Cedar
A pale yellow-coloured softwood with a fine even texture. Light in weight but stiff and stable.
Used for furniture, boat building, veneers, and model making.

Redwood
Quite strong, Lots of knots, durable when preserved. cheap
General woodwork, cupboards, shelves, roofs.

Hardwood = Deciduous timbers (lose their leaves in winter) are slow growing and expensive e.g oak


Beech
very hard but easy to work with, can be steam bent and shaped, light colour, heavy. Able to resist scratching and indentation.
furniture, toys, tool handles

Oak
Very strong, hard but easy to work with, light brown. Corrodes steel screws and fittings.
High quality furniture, veneers

Ash
Light, creamy-brown colour, open-grained, tough, flexible
Sports equipment, wooden ladders, tool handles

Elm
Light to medium brown in colour, open and sometimes interlocking grain, tough, durable, resists splitting, durable in water
Indoor and outdoor furniture

Mahogany
Pink to reddish-brown colour, fairly strong, durable, some interlocking grain
Good quality furniture

Man-made Boards = Boards created from either wood chippings or wood dust combined with an adhesive (composite material) cheap e.g. MDF, Chipboard


MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard)
Smooth, even surface. Easily machined and painted or stained. Also available in water and fire resistant forms
Used mainly for furniture and interior panelling due to its easy machining qualities. Often veneered or painted

Plywood
A very strong board which is constructed of layers of veneer or piles which are glued at 90 degrees to each other. Interior and exterior grades are available
Used for strong structural panelling board used in building construction. Furniture making. Some grades used for boat building and exterior work.

Chipboard
Made from chips of wood glued together. Usually veneered or covered in plastic laminate. A manufactured board.
Used for kitchen and bedroom furniture usually veneered or covered with a plastic laminated. Shelving and general DIY work

Blockboard
Similar to plywood but the central layer is made from strips of timber. Good for shelves and worktops.
Used where heavier structures are needed. Common for shelving and worktops.

Hardboard
A very cheap particle board which sometimes has a laminated plastic surface.
Used for furniture backs, covering curved structures, door panels.


• Timber Structure
Hardwood Structure:
Have large pores that allow water to travel from the root. Has fibres which gives it strength. Has a closed grain which makes it less susceptible to rot and insect infestation.

Softwood Structure:
Have no pores and instead have tracheids which assist in water transportation. They also have parenchyma which is used to store food



Grain = the visual effect of the flow of tracheids
Tracheids = the cells of the wood
Lignin = the natural resins that hold the cells together in timbers
Knots = natural defects found in timber, the start of branches from the trunk

----------------------------------
Hope that helps
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K0302
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An actual legend
(Original post by CoolCavy)

• Wood Classifications:

Softwood = Evergreen timbers that are quick growing and coniferous (retain their leaves in winter). e.g conifers, spruces

Scots pine
Straight-grained softwood but knotty. Light in colour. Fairly strong but easy to work with. Cheap and readily available.
Cheap quality furniture. Used for constructional work and simple joinery.

Parana Pine
Hard and straight-grained. Almost knot free. Fairly strong and durable. Expensive. Pale yellow in colour with red/brown streaks.
Doors and staircases.

Spruce
Creamy-white softwood with small hard knots. Not very durable.
General indoor work, white wood furniture used in bedrooms and kitchens.

Cedar
A pale yellow-coloured softwood with a fine even texture. Light in weight but stiff and stable.
Used for furniture, boat building, veneers, and model making.

Redwood
Quite strong, Lots of knots, durable when preserved. cheap
General woodwork, cupboards, shelves, roofs.

Hardwood = Deciduous timbers (lose their leaves in winter) are slow growing and expensive e.g oak


Beech
very hard but easy to work with, can be steam bent and shaped, light colour, heavy. Able to resist scratching and indentation.
furniture, toys, tool handles

Oak
Very strong, hard but easy to work with, light brown. Corrodes steel screws and fittings.
High quality furniture, veneers

Ash
Light, creamy-brown colour, open-grained, tough, flexible
Sports equipment, wooden ladders, tool handles

Elm
Light to medium brown in colour, open and sometimes interlocking grain, tough, durable, resists splitting, durable in water
Indoor and outdoor furniture

Mahogany
Pink to reddish-brown colour, fairly strong, durable, some interlocking grain
Good quality furniture

Man-made Boards = Boards created from either wood chippings or wood dust combined with an adhesive (composite material) cheap e.g. MDF, Chipboard


MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard)
Smooth, even surface. Easily machined and painted or stained. Also available in water and fire resistant forms
Used mainly for furniture and interior panelling due to its easy machining qualities. Often veneered or painted

Plywood
A very strong board which is constructed of layers of veneer or piles which are glued at 90 degrees to each other. Interior and exterior grades are available
Used for strong structural panelling board used in building construction. Furniture making. Some grades used for boat building and exterior work.

Chipboard
Made from chips of wood glued together. Usually veneered or covered in plastic laminate. A manufactured board.
Used for kitchen and bedroom furniture usually veneered or covered with a plastic laminated. Shelving and general DIY work

Blockboard
Similar to plywood but the central layer is made from strips of timber. Good for shelves and worktops.
Used where heavier structures are needed. Common for shelving and worktops.

Hardboard
A very cheap particle board which sometimes has a laminated plastic surface.
Used for furniture backs, covering curved structures, door panels.


• Timber Structure
Hardwood Structure:
Have large pores that allow water to travel from the root. Has fibres which gives it strength. Has a closed grain which makes it less susceptible to rot and insect infestation.

Softwood Structure:
Have no pores and instead have tracheids which assist in water transportation. They also have parenchyma which is used to store food



Grain = the visual effect of the flow of tracheids
Tracheids = the cells of the wood
Lignin = the natural resins that hold the cells together in timbers
Knots = natural defects found in timber, the start of branches from the trunk

----------------------------------
Hope that helps
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rke7241
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(Original post by CoolCavy)

• Wood Classifications:

Softwood = Evergreen timbers that are quick growing and coniferous (retain their leaves in winter). e.g conifers, spruces

Scots pine
Straight-grained softwood but knotty. Light in colour. Fairly strong but easy to work with. Cheap and readily available.
Cheap quality furniture. Used for constructional work and simple joinery.

Parana Pine
Hard and straight-grained. Almost knot free. Fairly strong and durable. Expensive. Pale yellow in colour with red/brown streaks.
Doors and staircases.

Spruce
Creamy-white softwood with small hard knots. Not very durable.
General indoor work, white wood furniture used in bedrooms and kitchens.

Cedar
A pale yellow-coloured softwood with a fine even texture. Light in weight but stiff and stable.
Used for furniture, boat building, veneers, and model making.

Redwood
Quite strong, Lots of knots, durable when preserved. cheap
General woodwork, cupboards, shelves, roofs.

Hardwood = Deciduous timbers (lose their leaves in winter) are slow growing and expensive e.g oak


Beech
very hard but easy to work with, can be steam bent and shaped, light colour, heavy. Able to resist scratching and indentation.
furniture, toys, tool handles

Oak
Very strong, hard but easy to work with, light brown. Corrodes steel screws and fittings.
High quality furniture, veneers

Ash
Light, creamy-brown colour, open-grained, tough, flexible
Sports equipment, wooden ladders, tool handles

Elm
Light to medium brown in colour, open and sometimes interlocking grain, tough, durable, resists splitting, durable in water
Indoor and outdoor furniture

Mahogany
Pink to reddish-brown colour, fairly strong, durable, some interlocking grain
Good quality furniture

Man-made Boards = Boards created from either wood chippings or wood dust combined with an adhesive (composite material) cheap e.g. MDF, Chipboard


MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard)
Smooth, even surface. Easily machined and painted or stained. Also available in water and fire resistant forms
Used mainly for furniture and interior panelling due to its easy machining qualities. Often veneered or painted

Plywood
A very strong board which is constructed of layers of veneer or piles which are glued at 90 degrees to each other. Interior and exterior grades are available
Used for strong structural panelling board used in building construction. Furniture making. Some grades used for boat building and exterior work.

Chipboard
Made from chips of wood glued together. Usually veneered or covered in plastic laminate. A manufactured board.
Used for kitchen and bedroom furniture usually veneered or covered with a plastic laminated. Shelving and general DIY work

Blockboard
Similar to plywood but the central layer is made from strips of timber. Good for shelves and worktops.
Used where heavier structures are needed. Common for shelving and worktops.

Hardboard
A very cheap particle board which sometimes has a laminated plastic surface.
Used for furniture backs, covering curved structures, door panels.


• Timber Structure
Hardwood Structure:
Have large pores that allow water to travel from the root. Has fibres which gives it strength. Has a closed grain which makes it less susceptible to rot and insect infestation.

Softwood Structure:
Have no pores and instead have tracheids which assist in water transportation. They also have parenchyma which is used to store food



Grain = the visual effect of the flow of tracheids
Tracheids = the cells of the wood
Lignin = the natural resins that hold the cells together in timbers
Knots = natural defects found in timber, the start of branches from the trunk

----------------------------------
Hope that helps
thank you very much for taking the time to type that. I am eternally grateful.
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by K0302)
An actual legend
(Original post by rke7241)
thank you very much for taking the time to type that. I am eternally grateful.
No worries at all just tag me if you (or anyone in this thread) needs anymore help, have a lot of this stuff just sat on my computer not doing anything so
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Krishna1601
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would you happen to have anything on plastics?
(Original post by CoolCavy)
No worries at all just tag me if you (or anyone in this thread) needs anymore help, have a lot of this stuff just sat on my computer not doing anything so
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Slayingrobin
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(Original post by CoolCavy)
No worries at all just tag me if you (or anyone in this thread) needs anymore help, have a lot of this stuff just sat on my computer not doing anything so
anything of microcontrollers and pcb and other design aids?
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James1908
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I got 97/100 on the coursework. Does anyone have any ideas of what will come up on the exam. Does anyone have any revision resources for paper and boards?
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by Krishna1601)
would you happen to have anything on plastics?
:yes: do you want plastic properties/plastic processes or both?

(Original post by Slayingrobin)
anything of microcontrollers and pcb and other design aids?
I dont think i do am sorry
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Krishna1601
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(Original post by CoolCavy)
:yes: do you want plastic properties/plastic processes or both?
both please if you don't mind
im sorry but do you also have processes for woods and paper and stuff
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by Krishna1601)
both please if you don't mind
im sorry but do you also have processes for woods and paper and stuff
• The preparation of timber:
Seasoning:
Seasoning is the controlled drying of timber as 'green wood' cannot be used as a material due to the moisture content.
-increases the strength and stability of the timber
-the reduced moisture content reduces the risk of the timber causing corrosion to surrounding metalwork
-makes the timber less prone to rot and decay

Shrinkage = all timbers shrink due to loss of moisture during seasoning

Air seasoning:
the simplest method of seasoning:
the timber is normally placed in a hut / building, with two sides open to allow air to circulate. The roof and two other sides keep the timber relatively dry. The circulation of the air slowly dries the timer. However, this techniques does not give a precise moisture content. This is because air circulates freely and carries moisture, depending on the weather and the time of year. Slow process.

Kiln seasoning:
a form of seasoning that uses steam in a controlled way to reduce the content of moisture in the timber:
Kilns are used because the process speeds up seasoning and this method can be used to accurately control the moisture content of the wood. The wood is carefully stacked inside the brick kiln. Water is heated and the resulting steam allowed to enter the kiln, circulating inside and around the wood boards. Over time, the amount of steam (humidity) is reduced until the wood has the desired moisture content.

• Stock Forms of timber:
A stock form is the standard size and weight in which timber is sold. These stock forms make it easier to design products as set thickness's and sizes should always be available. Examples of stock forms:
-Boards: rectangular sections that vary in length
-Lengths: Square sections
-Dowel: cylindrical forms that are available in a range of diameters and lengths.
-Moulds: Wood can be supplied in the form of mouldings which have a variety of sections. Used for decorative edges and can be found on traditional furniture.

• Wood Conversions:
Conversion is sawing up logs to provide usable wood forms. There are two forms of conversion:

Slab Sawn/Plain Sawn:
a form of conversion where the trunk of the tree is cut into slabs – more prone to warping

Quarter Sawn:
a form of conversion that can prevent warping and can be used to enhance the grain. Gives a less distinct grain pattern


• Veneers and Laminates:
Veneer: a thin section sheet of timber (usually hardwood) that is glued to a cheaper base material e.g chipboard or blockboard
veneers are used to provide a more decorative surface to inferior quality woods. They can make the surface more durable and aesthetically pleasing.

Laminate: a laminate is a material that has been placed in layers with the same or other materials . Plywood is an example of a laminated material.

How material is laminated and formed:
-Veneering flat material with a bag press:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LyDG6n5CMco

-laminate is made up of material bonded together
-produces a very stable material
-Laminating used to make plywood:

Plywood:
-Layers of hardwood veneer are layered together using PVA glue and the above techniques
-the grain direction in each additional layer is laid at 90 degrees to the previous layer
-this results in a sheet material very resistant to warping

Creating curved plywood without a vacuum bag press:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xaU8uc5OJBA

Steam Bending
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PYr1rK8pS30
-Timber moistened in a steam box to a point where it becomes more pliable
-wood bent around a former
-clamped in place around the former and left to dry out

• How wood products are finished:
-Laminating (See above)

-Polyurethane Paints:
Used to coat wooden toys. Extremely hard wearing, tough and scratch resistant. Can be wiped clean

-Polyurethane Varnish:
Used to finish woods with an attractive grain, it is transparent so allows the grain to be seen underneath the varnish. Availible in satin, matt or gloss.

-Yacht Varnish:
For wood based products that are used outside. Not affected by sunlight (doesn't expand and contract) unlike polyurethane varnish.

-Creosote:
Destroys plants and is damaging to the environment. Banned and alternative water based solvents are used instead.

-Oil-Based Paints:
Oil based paints are normally only available in gloss finishes. They are tough and long-lasting and are appropriate for metals and woods. When you paint it is important to prime the material first. This primer helps the paint stick to the material better and produces a better finish. Always use a good brush or roller and clean them after with a turps substitute or white spirit. Most new oil based paints are suitable for use on children’s toys and can be used for internal or external work.

-Water-Based Paints:
Water based paints unlike oil based paints are available in a wide range of finishes from matt to high gloss. A few water based paints are only suitable for light work such as painting walls for example ‘matt vinyl emulsion’. They are mainly suitable for wood only, however there are some available for metals. Water based paints are not as durable as oil based paints but you only need warm water and detergent to clean up afterwards.

-Solvent-Based Paint:
Solvent based paints are often found in spray cans and dry a lot faster than other types of paints. There are non spray types available but these are hard to apply with brushes. These paints include fascinating finishes such as speckled, hammered, etc. Solvent sprays can be very expensive but give very good results on small projects. A cellulose based solvent is needed for cleaning up. Good ventilation is compulsory as the vapours are very toxic and flammable.

-Oil:
Teak and comparable timbers are naturally oily. Applying teak or linseed oil provides an improved appearance within the grain of the timber. This protects the wood very well for external use. Vegetable oil can also be applied to wood which comes in contact with foods.

-French Polish (process not a material):
The main material in French Polish is shellac (from the lac beetle). French polish is a traditional finish which is accomplished by mixing shellac in methylated spirits. French polish is applied by brush and cloth and the finish is built up in several layers which accomplishes a very deep finish. Wax is then applied over the French polish which improves the shine.

-Stains:
Wood stains are used to improve the colour of the wood and they also help to show up the grain. Wood stains are applied using a cloth. Wood stains are available in numerous colours but only work well if the stain is actually darker than the woods colour. Wood stain if used on its own only colours the wood and so does not protect it against moisture. It requires a coating of wax or varnish over the wood stain to make it weather proof. Stains are available in water or solvent based forms

Stages of Painting wood:
-Sanding/Filing
-Vacuum or use a tacky cloth to remove sawdust
-Primer Coat used which helps the paint stick to the surface
-Base coat painted on top of the primer coat
-Undercoat painted onto the base coat
-Top coat of paint applied (more than one layer may be necessary)

----------------------------
Will get you the plastic stuff in a sec
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