Wonyo
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Hello! Here’s my thread for Lit Paper 1 coming up on Wednesday. I got a 9 in my November 2018 mocks for Lang/Lit, and for the mocks I did earlier this year I got 8/9. So, recently someone asked me to post notes on English Lit. Instead of me writing out EVERYTHING, ask me a question about a certain theme or context and I will be sure to reply with my class notes or anything I can.

Remember, re-reading Macbeth and Christmas Carol is some of the best revision you could do. Not only will it make you think of your own perspectives, but you will understand the play and novella easier! My tip for Lit is to be concise, which means ALWAYS GO BACK TO THE QUESTION. Quality wins over quantity.

For now, here are some KEY resources, and if you have any specific questions, please reply below!

Resources -

My teacher gave us this to do as homework and honestly, it was very useful. A set of questions for each stave that challenge your thinking, and so on. Lots of research into context goes here as well. (You need an account.) https://www.teachitenglish.co.uk/res...by-stave/23383

Oxnotes, Seneca (though it really just goes through the basics) are good.

Predictions -

I’ve seen a lot of people predicting Scrooge’s redemption and a focus on the ghosts this year. However, please revise everything you can!

For Macbeth, a lot of people are saying kingship and guilt. My teacher says they’ve focused on Act 1 in the past so it won’t be that, he says it might be around Act 4.

Useful teachers on YouTube -

Mr Salles, Mr Bruff and Stacey Reay. Life-savers!

P.S. I really love Macbeth, and I find it the easiest to write about.

Last edited by Wonyo; 5 months ago
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KieranMalandain
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Hola! Yeah I think it will be late play for Macbeth... maybe the “tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow” soliloquy after LM dies?
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Wonyo
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Yep! My teacher also said it might zoom in on a soliloquy. The tomorrow and tomorrow speech would be a good one to have.
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Vetrix42
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Can you give me quotes and notes on Macduff and Malcolm please?
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laurawatt
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Roughly how many paragraphs/sides do you write?
All the best for Tuesday!
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KieranMalandain
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I get to type my exams (legit reason, hyper mobility haha) so normally I can type about 1200 words / 4 typed sides at size 12. Although I think I should probably write a little less!
With regards to Malcolm, I wrote a 27/30 essay on his nobility if you’d like me to attach it on here?
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Wonyo
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I’m sorry if you can’t read my handwriting, but the idea of Macduff is Macduff as Macbeth’s nemesis. Essentially, Macbeth is the transgressor. Macbeth is occupying a position in society not meant for him, he is a usurper of the throne. This is because he defies divine right, and murder is blasphemy too. The inappropriateness of Macbeth taking the throne is symbolised in the literal/physical decline of Scotland itself.

Therefore, Macduff is the one to balance this all out. A nemesis is a “punishment that the protag can’t avoid”. Macduff as a nemesis produces a natural pushback against Macbeth who is transgressing beyond appropriate behaviour.

Macduff is completely different to Macbeth:

Macduff showing his emotions, remember Macbeth is essentially devoid of any sympathy at this point:
“I must also feel it as a man.”

Scotland’s decline: “Bleed, bleed, poor country! Great tyranny”

Macduff vs Macbeth: “Tyrant, show thy face!”

Malcolm essentially says he isn’t fit to be king and pushes this onto Macduff to help him. Malcolm isn’t someone I’d focus on too much, but know he is one that favours justice and is on Macduff’s side.

Hope this helped!
Last edited by Wonyo; 5 months ago
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Wonyo
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Please do!
(Original post by KieranMalandain)
I get to type my exams (legit reason, hyper mobility haha) so normally I can type about 1200 words / 4 typed sides at size 12. Although I think I should probably write a little less!
With regards to Malcolm, I wrote a 27/30 essay on his nobility if you’d like me to attach it on here?
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Wonyo
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I tend to write a lot. So 3 sides and a bit?! But 2 sides will suffice to get good marks.
(Original post by laurawatt)
Roughly how many paragraphs/sides do you write?
All the best for Tuesday!
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LuxuriousAngel
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Thank you so much Wonyo !! and going to start English lit revision tomorrow thanks for your help
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Wonyo
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No problem! LuxuriousAngel Happy I could help Good luck!!!
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KieranMalandain
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Here is the essay, I will put my EBIs at the bottom!!

----------------

After the downward spiral of Macbeth’s reign as a result of his unlawful and unholy regicide, peace is finally restored after his defeat and the announcement of Duncan’s son, Malcolm, as King of Scotland. There is a stark contrast between these three characters; Macbeth as a “butcher” who brings disorder to society, compared to Duncan and Malcolm who are great leaders and bring “honour” to Scotland.

There is an underlying element of mutual respect between Malcolm and his “kinsmen,” as he appoints them “henceforth to be earls,” referring also to “my thanes and kinsmen.” The employment of the possessive pronoun “my” represents the power that is possessed by Malcolm as King, but also his desire to associate with those loyal around him. This is in juxtaposition to the separation of King from country that was experienced under Macbeth; for example, through the suspicion of Macduff, the fleeing of Malcolm of Donaldbain, and his psychotic episode at the banquet table that results in his thanes questioning his authority. Ultimately, however, there was the separation of King from God as Macbeth subverted King Duncan himself through the regicide, as a result of his “vaulting ambition.”
Significantly in this extract is the usage of the discourse marker “henceforth.” This has a denotation of ‘from this moment onwards,’ and therefore one might suggest that it could be representative of a new beginning and era. Taking this further, it could be related to the ‘new covenant’ of God that was brought through the person of Jesus Christ (supported by the Christian Mass). The significance of this interpretation is that, during the Jacobean era, it was compulsory to be religious (otherwise, people faced execution), and thus religious belief (specifically Christian) was widespread amongst the populace. Coupled therefore with “henceforth,” one might argue that this illustrates the return of God into society after his role was perverted through the regicide of the God-chosen King, and as such the nobility of Malcolm is directly implied through this return; perhaps, it is an effort of Shakespeare to demonstrate how Malcolm is chosen by God to be King. The attack on the Divine Right of Kings (which King James I of England was incredibly interested in) by Macbeth represents his attack on God, and so the return of Divine Right is portrayed as the return of Malcolm being King.
In addition to this, “henceforth” is also, as aforementioned, a discourse marker, and as a result refers to a time phrase. This is significant because, after the death of Duncan, there is a complete lack of reference to any specified time period; for example, in Act V Scene V, Macbeth refers to “tomorrow, tomorrow, and tomorrow,” signifying how the days are passing by and his life has become pointless. As such, this return to a specific time point - ‘from this moment onwards’ - represents a return to Natural Order, following the principles of Natural Law. Once more, this presents Malcolm as a noble and good King through an indirect reference to stability.

The juxtaposition of Malcolm and Macbeth is mentioned explicitly by the new King himself, as he describes the Macbeth’s as a “dead butcher” and a “fiend-like Queen.” The simile here of “fiend-like” really highlights the true extent of the horror of Lady Macbeth, having connotations to a monster and a devil. This could potentially support the theory that she herself was a witch - after having called on the “spirits” that “tend on 25 mins mortal thoughts” - and therefore acted as a catalyst in a supernatural manner to aid the successful regicide. One might suggest that this is a reference to the popular belief that witches were the ultimate betrayal against God and the State, and that therefore through the suggestion that Lady Macbeth herself was a witch - and certainly that Macbeth associated with them - there was an element of betrayal against the state of Scotland. One may interpret this to mean that there are consequences of acting against the state, and / or in an unlawful manner and, consequently, one could suggest that Shakespeare wrote ‘Macbeth’ as an allegory to appease King James I of England, and also to serve as a warning to anyone who would attempt to repeat the previous actions of the gunpowder plot.
The relation of this to Malcolm’s honour is that Shakespeare may be attempting to create a parallel between the kingship of Malcolm and that of the newly-appointed King, James I of England. As someone who was not well known and within a time of social upheaval and riot, James desperately needed some credibility and therefore, after having bought out the major theatre company - notably, Shakespeare’s - he was, from some perspectives, able to use them as a propaganda tool for the working class theatre-goers. As such, Shakespeare may have felt almost compelled to write a play that presents the King in a positive light and, by juxtaposing his ancestors to the “butcher” of Macbeth, possibly succeeds in doing so.
Additionally, the noun “butcher” implies that Macbeth was ruthless and killed without mercy, and this is evident through the almost trophy-killing of Macduff’s family. The complete annihilation of them, and those in the surrounding area, demonstrates his utterly sick mental state and, when coupled with his “fiend-like queen,” represents the ambitious catalyst who tempted the deep evil that one might suggest was always within Macbeth.

To conclude this essay, there are a range of manners through which Shakespeare presents Malcolm as a good and noble King; firstly, through being the direct line to the throne after Duncan (and the positive description of his kingship), and secondly through the stark juxtaposition created with Macbeth’s authority. By employing devices such as similes and time-related discourse markers, the playwright relates not only to future times (in the context of the play), but also to the context of the Divine Right of Kings and the Christian populace during the Jacobean era. Ultimately, this serves to appease King James I of England and aims to shrink the social divide within the early 1600’s, and the allegory appears to succeed in doing so through its presentation of Malcolm as strong, honourable, and noble.

-------------------
EBIs:

Repeated phrases e.g. catalyst
Aristotle, tragedy, catharsis - link to one of last three paragraphs regarding social control
Duncan - why he picked Macbeth, nobility as a synonym for masculinity (Duncan does not have this, Malcolm does). Age = weakness as well?
Include an intro - what nobility means to me and what it would mean to a 1600 audience.
Consider the punctuation in speech - gifted speaker? Literal vs figurative language. Prose or pentameter? Rhyme at the end.
Check each paragraph, highlight where there has been a reference to nobility


Thanks!! Kieran
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LuxuriousAngel
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Thank you so much for your massive help! this will help me with my essay writing when I start revision tomorrow. and may I ask what was the question for this answer?
(Original post by KieranMalandain)
Here is the essay, I will put my EBIs at the bottom!!

----------------

After the downward spiral of Macbeth’s reign as a result of his unlawful and unholy regicide, peace is finally restored after his defeat and the announcement of Duncan’s son, Malcolm, as King of Scotland. There is a stark contrast between these three characters; Macbeth as a “butcher” who brings disorder to society, compared to Duncan and Malcolm who are great leaders and bring “honour” to Scotland.

There is an underlying element of mutual respect between Malcolm and his “kinsmen,” as he appoints them “henceforth to be earls,” referring also to “my thanes and kinsmen.” The employment of the possessive pronoun “my” represents the power that is possessed by Malcolm as King, but also his desire to associate with those loyal around him. This is in juxtaposition to the separation of King from country that was experienced under Macbeth; for example, through the suspicion of Macduff, the fleeing of Malcolm of Donaldbain, and his psychotic episode at the banquet table that results in his thanes questioning his authority. Ultimately, however, there was the separation of King from God as Macbeth subverted King Duncan himself through the regicide, as a result of his “vaulting ambition.”
Significantly in this extract is the usage of the discourse marker “henceforth.” This has a denotation of ‘from this moment onwards,’ and therefore one might suggest that it could be representative of a new beginning and era. Taking this further, it could be related to the ‘new covenant’ of God that was brought through the person of Jesus Christ (supported by the Christian Mass). The significance of this interpretation is that, during the Jacobean era, it was compulsory to be religious (otherwise, people faced execution), and thus religious belief (specifically Christian) was widespread amongst the populace. Coupled therefore with “henceforth,” one might argue that this illustrates the return of God into society after his role was perverted through the regicide of the God-chosen King, and as such the nobility of Malcolm is directly implied through this return; perhaps, it is an effort of Shakespeare to demonstrate how Malcolm is chosen by God to be King. The attack on the Divine Right of Kings (which King James I of England was incredibly interested in) by Macbeth represents his attack on God, and so the return of Divine Right is portrayed as the return of Malcolm being King.
In addition to this, “henceforth” is also, as aforementioned, a discourse marker, and as a result refers to a time phrase. This is significant because, after the death of Duncan, there is a complete lack of reference to any specified time period; for example, in Act V Scene V, Macbeth refers to “tomorrow, tomorrow, and tomorrow,” signifying how the days are passing by and his life has become pointless. As such, this return to a specific time point - ‘from this moment onwards’ - represents a return to Natural Order, following the principles of Natural Law. Once more, this presents Malcolm as a noble and good King through an indirect reference to stability.

The juxtaposition of Malcolm and Macbeth is mentioned explicitly by the new King himself, as he describes the Macbeth’s as a “dead butcher” and a “fiend-like Queen.” The simile here of “fiend-like” really highlights the true extent of the horror of Lady Macbeth, having connotations to a monster and a devil. This could potentially support the theory that she herself was a witch - after having called on the “spirits” that “tend on 25 mins mortal thoughts” - and therefore acted as a catalyst in a supernatural manner to aid the successful regicide. One might suggest that this is a reference to the popular belief that witches were the ultimate betrayal against God and the State, and that therefore through the suggestion that Lady Macbeth herself was a witch - and certainly that Macbeth associated with them - there was an element of betrayal against the state of Scotland. One may interpret this to mean that there are consequences of acting against the state, and / or in an unlawful manner and, consequently, one could suggest that Shakespeare wrote ‘Macbeth’ as an allegory to appease King James I of England, and also to serve as a warning to anyone who would attempt to repeat the previous actions of the gunpowder plot.
The relation of this to Malcolm’s honour is that Shakespeare may be attempting to create a parallel between the kingship of Malcolm and that of the newly-appointed King, James I of England. As someone who was not well known and within a time of social upheaval and riot, James desperately needed some credibility and therefore, after having bought out the major theatre company - notably, Shakespeare’s - he was, from some perspectives, able to use them as a propaganda tool for the working class theatre-goers. As such, Shakespeare may have felt almost compelled to write a play that presents the King in a positive light and, by juxtaposing his ancestors to the “butcher” of Macbeth, possibly succeeds in doing so.
Additionally, the noun “butcher” implies that Macbeth was ruthless and killed without mercy, and this is evident through the almost trophy-killing of Macduff’s family. The complete annihilation of them, and those in the surrounding area, demonstrates his utterly sick mental state and, when coupled with his “fiend-like queen,” represents the ambitious catalyst who tempted the deep evil that one might suggest was always within Macbeth.

To conclude this essay, there are a range of manners through which Shakespeare presents Malcolm as a good and noble King; firstly, through being the direct line to the throne after Duncan (and the positive description of his kingship), and secondly through the stark juxtaposition created with Macbeth’s authority. By employing devices such as similes and time-related discourse markers, the playwright relates not only to future times (in the context of the play), but also to the context of the Divine Right of Kings and the Christian populace during the Jacobean era. Ultimately, this serves to appease King James I of England and aims to shrink the social divide within the early 1600’s, and the allegory appears to succeed in doing so through its presentation of Malcolm as strong, honourable, and noble.

-------------------
EBIs:

Repeated phrases e.g. catalyst
Aristotle, tragedy, catharsis - link to one of last three paragraphs regarding social control
Duncan - why he picked Macbeth, nobility as a synonym for masculinity (Duncan does not have this, Malcolm does). Age = weakness as well?
Include an intro - what nobility means to me and what it would mean to a 1600 audience.
Consider the punctuation in speech - gifted speaker? Literal vs figurative language. Prose or pentameter? Rhyme at the end.
Check each paragraph, highlight where there has been a reference to nobility


Thanks!! Kieran
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KieranMalandain
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(Original post by LuxuriousAngel)
Thank you so much for your massive help! this will help me with my essay writing when I start revision tomorrow. and may I ask what was the question for this answer?
It was "How does Shakespeare present Malcolm as a good and noble King" for the extract at the end, where he calls macbeth a "dead butcher" (Act V Scene V I believe)
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LuxuriousAngel
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Ok, thanks for the answer!
(Original post by KieranMalandain)
It was "How does Shakespeare present Malcolm as a good and noble King" for the extract at the end, where he calls macbeth a "dead butcher" (Act V Scene V I believe)
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Vetrix42
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Cheers what about the theme of guilt?
(Original post by Wonyo)
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I’m sorry if you can’t read my handwriting, but the idea of Macduff is Macduff as Macbeth’s nemesis. Essentially, Macbeth is the transgressor. Macbeth is occupying a position in society not meant for him, he is a usurper of the throne. This is because he defies divine right, and murder is blasphemy too. The inappropriateness of Macbeth taking the throne is symbolised in the literal/physical decline of Scotland itself.

Therefore, Macduff is the one to balance this all out. A nemesis is a “punishment that the protag can’t avoid”. Macduff as a nemesis produces a natural pushback against Macbeth who is transgressing beyond appropriate behaviour.

Macduff is completely different to Macbeth:

Macduff showing his emotions, remember Macbeth is essentially devoid of any sympathy at this point:
“I must also feel it as a man.”

Scotland’s decline: “Bleed, bleed, poor country! Great tyranny”

Macduff vs Macbeth: “Tyrant, show thy face!”

Malcolm essentially says he isn’t fit to be king and pushes this onto Macduff to help him. Malcolm isn’t someone I’d focus on too much, but know he is one that favours justice and is on Macduff’s side.

Hope this helped!
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KieranMalandain
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(Original post by Vetrix42)
Cheers what about the theme of guilt?
guilt could be related to the washing of the hands at the start (link to pontious Pilate), also the visions of Banquo, of course the "out dammed spot scene," when LM tops herself you could relate that to Judas in the Bible (sin against God)! these are good as it was illegal not to be Christian during the Jacobean era! hope this helped
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nmkat
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Thankk youu!!
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