how did mussolini use terror in consolidation of power?

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tropical-twist3
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the history exam is tomo and im very unprepared...

i know mussolini used terror, squadrismo violence, as propaganda in his rise to power, against the socialists to appeal to anti-socialism, they ruined socialist protest and demonstrations in bienno rosso etc and it revived the fascist movement...

but how did he use terror after he became prime minister? how did he set up a network of terror ? was it successful in consolidating power? ....compared to stalin who used terror to a great extent with purges etc to consolidate power...
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GingerMarshmallow
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OVRA - secret police.
When they voted on the Acerbo Law, supposedly the squadristi were hanging about to make sure people voted correctly, then in the following election they were there too, armed and dangerous.
Other than that I don't really have anything about his use of terror. But then he wasn't as good at being a dictator as Stalin, Hitler, Mao etc....
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tropical-twist3
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yeah you kind of associate alot of violence and terror with a strong dictatorship, and compared to more violent dictatorships i'm finding it more difficult to see mussolini's itay as a strong dictatorship....
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GingerMarshmallow
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Yeah, I've gotta say I'm not that impressed. Despite how horrific everything that Stalin, Mao and Hitler did, you've can't not be impressed with how well they did everything. Particularly Mao - still highly esteemed in China even though he was apparently the dictator who killed the highest number of his own people (Stalin's next!)

Do you think the question's likely to be/be focused on consolidation of power then?
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tropical-twist3
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i'm not sure, theres but one half is ALWAYS linked to consolidation and the other on rise to power. wants draw out theories on how and why totalitarian regimes happen i guess
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tropical-twist3
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we need some more historians to add their opinions on mussolini...
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HoVis
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(Original post by tropical-twist3)
the history exam is tomo and im very unprepared...

i know mussolini used terror, squadrismo violence, as propaganda in his rise to power, against the socialists to appeal to anti-socialism, they ruined socialist protest and demonstrations in bienno rosso etc and it revived the fascist movement...

but how did he use terror after he became prime minister? how did he set up a network of terror ? was it successful in consolidating power? ....compared to stalin who used terror to a great extent with purges etc to consolidate power...
Mussolini didn't really use terror or violence much. The term we're given is "surgical violence"; he removes a few opposing figures 'unofficially' (such as Matteoti) but mostly people were either 'Confined' or exiled ('promoted away from power'... lol). He had the Special Tribunal for the Defence of the State but that only executed 26 people in 17 years. Compared to Stalin's 24.3m...

Mussolini is what you might call a cuddly dictator. :p:
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insert-user-name
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(Original post by HoVis)
Mussolini is what you might call a cuddly dictator. :p:
hahahahahah that made me laugh quite a lot.

Im starting to see him as less of a totalitarian that the others now. More like a prime minister with a superiority complex.
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GingerMarshmallow
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(Original post by tropical-twist3)
i'm not sure, theres but one half is ALWAYS linked to consolidation and the other on rise to power. wants draw out theories on how and why totalitarian regimes happen i guess
Huh? I'm retaking it atm and when I did it first time (last summer) I def had a question on economic policy (which I did) and then I think the other one was foreign policy....neither consolidation or rise to power. Maybe I'm doing a different exam...although mine's tomorrow too.
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J-OD
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-During the Biennio Rosso. as the economy was so bad post war.. this led to social problems and whereas there were a lot of strikes.. (300 factory lockins in sept 1920) some people couldnt afford to strike.. the 'blacklegs'... fascist violence meant that these people could cross the picketlines..and the industrialists/elite also gained n liked the fascist movement because of this.

-1924 Elections - good example of violence in politics.. even though they were guaranteed 66% of seats if they got 25% of votes, there were 'dirty' election tactics.. the use of the fascist paramilitary organisations actually in the election booths on polling day..

matteoti criticised these election tactics..., 10th june he was killed.. leading to matteoti crisis and there was an issue with the ras who felt that because the cheka was used instead of themselves they were effectively 'untainted' and were able to demand Mussolini for more of a role.. (after the creation of the MVSN in the prior year) - this shows an internal power struggle.. so if itsa two sided question include this.. some say that the matteoti crisis used violence to get rid of opposition but i would rather argue that the crisis was more detrimental to the Mussolini, outweighing the loss of ONE socialist opponent in the chamber of deputies... (although more went effectively in the Aventine Sucession)

it was more obvious use of violence up until 1920.. after this it was more subtle.. (dual track to power) because of the popular journalism and the alienation of the elites if they realised the extent to which it was a violent regime..
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Hasan
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He did use violence during his reign but it was tame compared to other dictators. I would say the threat of violence was also important because of the secret police such as OVRA. Also Bocchini who was head of the police was a supporter of Fascism. All this means that Mussolini used intimidation as well as actual violence to consolidate power.

And if you mention the Aventine Secession, make sure you write Secession instead of succession :p:
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J-OD
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oops.. secession even..
and not the 500BC one either

it seems easy to make the link to other dictators though.. 1919 Avanti offices burned down - obvious parallels to Reichstag fire, but in many other ways this dual track approach seems to fit the Fascist Italy course better than the Nazi Germany one, perhaps the pragmatic approach of Mussolini suggests more of a care for the wayin which he was perceived. The head of police thing was quite common in Europe at the time.. or later even.. with Maurice Papon as French Prefet de Police, later on trial for collaboration with the Nazis.
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tropical-twist3
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whts the difference between OVRA and MVSN?
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J-OD
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OVRA was more of a secret police whereas MVSN was a paramilitary broader organisation
n the OVRA was founded in 1927 whereas the MVSN was before.. 1934 perhaps?
correct me if im wrong...
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IvsterC
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(Original post by J-OD)
OVRA was more of a secret police whereas MVSN was a paramilitary broader organisation
n the OVRA was founded in 1927 whereas the MVSN was before.. 1934 perhaps?
correct me if im wrong...
I'm pretty sure OVRA was found in 1925 and MVSN in 1923...
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