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is anyone else struggling to revise from product design A-level aqa
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CoolCavy
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Hey, what do you need help with?
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paper 2 !! just finding it hard to revise for in terms of the content we have to know
(Original post by CoolCavy)
Hey, what do you need help with?
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by 10hibbn)
paper 2 !! just finding it hard to revise for in terms of the content we have to know
what content? if you give specific topics i can try to help you (am an undergraduate product design student)
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Rach.n28
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I am too. Like I don’t even kno what I need to know
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i find it all to be shambles as much as i try revise i dont know what it is i need to focus on since its so indepth
(Original post by Rach.n28)
I am too. Like I don’t even kno what I need to know
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what content? if you give specific topics i can try to help you (am an undergraduate product design student)
Thank you ! appreciate your help and since the specification has changed the areas i need help on it all the art movements and remembering all the designers and each of the work they have produced .... and the social influences. Also paper one ... i have learnt a lot of the content for but its difficult to remember all the materials and each of the uses for them?
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(Original post by 10hibbn)
Thank you ! appreciate your help and since the specification has changed the areas i need help on it all the art movements and remembering all the designers and each of the work they have produced .... and the social influences. Also paper one ... i have learnt a lot of the content for but its difficult to remember all the materials and each of the uses for them?
I have some notes on the art movements which i will dig out for you, try and remember the names because often they are self explanatory e.g modernism is all about chrome and tubular sections i.e typical modern things whilst post-modernism is the total opposite of that, lots of fun bright colours. Try to remember specific examples like bauhaus for modernism.
Are there any materials in particular? like plastics, metals etc? a good way to practise is to look around you at everyday products and consider what they are made from and why
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Thank you that would help alot! i will try look into each of them and remember the names and it more plastics like the uses of each i can easily identify whether its thermoplastic or thermoset but its looking at the uses for each of them im finding it hard to remember
(Original post by CoolCavy)
I have some notes on the art movements which i will dig out for you, try and remember the names because often they are self explanatory e.g modernism is all about chrome and tubular sections i.e typical modern things whilst post-modernism is the total opposite of that, lots of fun bright colours. Try to remember specific examples like bauhaus for modernism.
Are there any materials in particular? like plastics, metals etc? a good way to practise is to look around you at everyday products and consider what they are made from and why
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  • Past and Present Designers:

The Machine Age:
-Can be traced back to the 15th century
-Johannes Gutenberg invented a movable printing press (enabled fast and economic reproduction of printed text)
-Prior to this text mostly printed using hand carved wooden blocks
-Steam power made machine manufacture more common
-Industrial revolution (1700s) innovation in equipment e.g. Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves in 1764) could spin 16 yarns at a time
-Brought textiles into large-scale production
-Josiah Wedgwood perfected ceramic processes on an industrial scale
-Before industrial revolution, products made at home (cottage industry) of the machine age
-Due to machinery products could be made much more economically

The Product Age:
-Need for ‘product designers’ realised after the Great Exhibition (1851)
-Involvement of designers resulted in product that were more functional and attractive to consumers
-Not necessarily better quality than if they had been made by hand
-Great Exhibition in Hyde Park Crystal Palace. Intended to showcase products of the machine age
-Highlighted how products had become over decorated and elaborate

Arts and Crafts Movement (height from 1890 - 1910):
-Founded by William Morris (furniture and wallpaper designer). Response to mass production
-Morris a socialist, opposed to poor working conditions of factory employees, the inferior quality of the goods being produced and the damage being caused to the environment
-Products should be simple and functional
-Made from natural materials, took style from shapes and organic forms in nature
-Believed in pride of craftsmanship and wanted to see machines used only to assist workers
-Wanted to see a return of skilled workers, set up ‘guilds’
-Expensive products due to the time and skill needed to produce them
-Use of natural materials e.g. oak

Art Nouveau (1880 - 1910):
-Late 19th and early 20th centuries
-Means ‘new art’
-Free flowing, organic lines and shapes
-Use of sinuous lines and ‘whiplash’ tendrils
-Curves applied to everything from architecture to graphics, wallpaper, jewellery, vases and lamps
-Wrought ironwork of Paris Metro Station by Hector Guimard
-Gaudi had his own interpretation of Art Nouveau
-Louis Comfort Tiffany famous for his glassware influenced by Art Nouveau
-Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Glasgow School of Art building)
-Mackintosh’s furniture used stylised motives loosely derived from Celtic art and natural forms

Deutsche Werkbund:
-Was an association set up in Germany (1907)
-To bring together arts, crafts, industry, business and education
-Promoted role of design in industry
-Standardisation and machine manufacture of products
-Berlin architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe led a project to redesign house for families with low income in Stuttgart (1925)
-Project names Weissenhof settlement and became the archetype for new building -Went on to become leading figures in the Bauhaus and Modern Movement

Bauhaus and Modernism:
-Means ‘building house’
-German school of art and design founded in the 1920s by Walter Gropius (from Deutsche Werkbund association)
-New materials from machine age, geometric forms and primary colours
-Marcel Breuer, Wassily Kandinsky and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
-Form follows function, product appearance influenced by what it is intended to do
-Everyday objects for everyday people, products should be affordable to a wide range of consumers
-Products should be designed to be made with the use of mechanised processes and modern materials
-Designs should use vertical, horizontal, geometric shapes and clean lines
-Basic tone and primary colours
-’Wassily Chair’ and the ‘Barcelona Chair’
-Moved to Chicago in 1930s to escape Nazis, helped shape American architecture (use of reinforced concrete and glass to make affordable buildings)
-Idea that products can be made ergonomically correct using appropriate materials and limited decoration became known as the ‘Modernism’

Art Deco (1920 - 1939):
-Affected interior design, graphics, fashion and products
-Brought together several styles and movements including modernism, cubism, Bauhaus and Art Nouveau
-Decorative style, seen as ultra modern, elegant and functional
-Founded by a group of French Artists ‘La société des Artistes Decorateurs’
-Shapes, colours and styling features taken from Egypt, stepped forms from the Aztecs
-Zigzagged, trapezoid and geometric shapes
-Jumbled shapes e.g. Clarice Cliff Bizarre range ceramics
-Stepped block forms
-Sunburst motifs
-Chevron patterns

1930s Streamlining:
-Much interest in streamlines vehicles, boats and aircraft breaking a number of speed records
-Began to appear as an aesthetic feature in a wide range of products e.g. radios, kettles etc
-Coincided with an advancement in materials and manufacturing e.g. use of Bakelite (enabled more complex aesthetic features to be moulded
-As National Grid expanded demand for new consumer electrical goods increased
-New materials and processes utilised to meet demand

1940s Utility:
-WWII Britain not self sufficient, relied on imported timber
-Many homes bombed out, replacement furniture needed -Utility Furniture Committee established. Headed by George Russell
-Produced design plans for strong well made furniture from scare timber supplies
-Resembled early arts and crafts work (simple form, minimal surface decoration)
-Utility furniture continued after WWII until rationing ended

Post-War Design:
-During WWII there had been advancements in materials and electronics as well as research into user requirements
-K3 Kettle (made by Burrage and Boyd Ltd in 1946)
-Made from aluminium (from recycled aircraft) with a wooden handle
-Took some styling from pre-war streamlining
-Uncluttered smooth lines
-1950s = Interest in science and space, products influenced and took on the shape of rockets and ‘futuristic forms’
-Late 1950s = explosion in youth culture, new colourful products with new polymers

Post-Modernism:
-Reaction against the modernist movement
-Focus on aesthetic rather than the function of the product
-Use of ornamental and decorative features
-Borrowing of styles from Egypt etc
-Influences from media and fashion
-Memphis group e.g. Carlton Room Divider in Plastic Laminate and Etruscan Chair

British Industrial Design:
-Key designers of 20th century = Ken Grange, spanned 50 years
-Developed Kenwood food processors, Kodak cameras, Wilkinson Sword razors, Pens for Parker etc
-Grange believed products should be designed with consideration to their function and usability ‘good design’

21st Century Design:
-Development of 3D animation software, allows organic, free flowing forms by use of spheres and cylinders
-Led to products taking on a ‘blob’ appearance
-Made from injection moulded polymers, pressed or cast metal
-Volkswagen Beetle, Citroen C1 and C3 and Apple iMac -Some buildings designed this way (‘blobitecture’) e.g. Sage in Gateshead building by Norman Foster
-Use of anthropomorphism, application of human characteristics to inanimate objects
-Done to make products more appealing to use or ‘soften’ the interface between product and user e.g. ASIMO Honda robot
-Advancement in microelectronics and miniaturization of components > explosion of ‘Gizmos’
-Intended as statement pieces
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10hibbn
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Thankyou ! I will have a read through and make some notes ! this helps a lot
(Original post by CoolCavy)
10hibbn


  • Past and Present Designers:

The Machine Age:
-Can be traced back to the 15th century
-Johannes Gutenberg invented a movable printing press (enabled fast and economic reproduction of printed text)
-Prior to this text mostly printed using hand carved wooden blocks
-Steam power made machine manufacture more common
-Industrial revolution (1700s) innovation in equipment e.g. Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves in 1764) could spin 16 yarns at a time
-Brought textiles into large-scale production
-Josiah Wedgwood perfected ceramic processes on an industrial scale
-Before industrial revolution, products made at home (cottage industry) of the machine age
-Due to machinery products could be made much more economically

The Product Age:
-Need for ‘product designers’ realised after the Great Exhibition (1851)
-Involvement of designers resulted in product that were more functional and attractive to consumers
-Not necessarily better quality than if they had been made by hand
-Great Exhibition in Hyde Park Crystal Palace. Intended to showcase products of the machine age
-Highlighted how products had become over decorated and elaborate

Arts and Crafts Movement (height from 1890 - 1910):
-Founded by William Morris (furniture and wallpaper designer). Response to mass production
-Morris a socialist, opposed to poor working conditions of factory employees, the inferior quality of the goods being produced and the damage being caused to the environment
-Products should be simple and functional
-Made from natural materials, took style from shapes and organic forms in nature
-Believed in pride of craftsmanship and wanted to see machines used only to assist workers
-Wanted to see a return of skilled workers, set up ‘guilds’
-Expensive products due to the time and skill needed to produce them
-Use of natural materials e.g. oak

Art Nouveau (1880 - 1910):
-Late 19th and early 20th centuries
-Means ‘new art’
-Free flowing, organic lines and shapes
-Use of sinuous lines and ‘whiplash’ tendrils
-Curves applied to everything from architecture to graphics, wallpaper, jewellery, vases and lamps
-Wrought ironwork of Paris Metro Station by Hector Guimard
-Gaudi had his own interpretation of Art Nouveau
-Louis Comfort Tiffany famous for his glassware influenced by Art Nouveau
-Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Glasgow School of Art building)
-Mackintosh’s furniture used stylised motives loosely derived from Celtic art and natural forms

Deutsche Werkbund:
-Was an association set up in Germany (1907)
-To bring together arts, crafts, industry, business and education
-Promoted role of design in industry
-Standardisation and machine manufacture of products
-Berlin architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe led a project to redesign house for families with low income in Stuttgart (1925)
-Project names Weissenhof settlement and became the archetype for new building -Went on to become leading figures in the Bauhaus and Modern Movement

Bauhaus and Modernism:
-Means ‘building house’
-German school of art and design founded in the 1920s by Walter Gropius (from Deutsche Werkbund association)
-New materials from machine age, geometric forms and primary colours
-Marcel Breuer, Wassily Kandinsky and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
-Form follows function, product appearance influenced by what it is intended to do
-Everyday objects for everyday people, products should be affordable to a wide range of consumers
-Products should be designed to be made with the use of mechanised processes and modern materials
-Designs should use vertical, horizontal, geometric shapes and clean lines
-Basic tone and primary colours
-’Wassily Chair’ and the ‘Barcelona Chair’
-Moved to Chicago in 1930s to escape Nazis, helped shape American architecture (use of reinforced concrete and glass to make affordable buildings)
-Idea that products can be made ergonomically correct using appropriate materials and limited decoration became known as the ‘Modernism’

Art Deco (1920 - 1939):
-Affected interior design, graphics, fashion and products
-Brought together several styles and movements including modernism, cubism, Bauhaus and Art Nouveau
-Decorative style, seen as ultra modern, elegant and functional
-Founded by a group of French Artists ‘La société des Artistes Decorateurs’
-Shapes, colours and styling features taken from Egypt, stepped forms from the Aztecs
-Zigzagged, trapezoid and geometric shapes
-Jumbled shapes e.g. Clarice Cliff Bizarre range ceramics
-Stepped block forms
-Sunburst motifs
-Chevron patterns

1930s Streamlining:
-Much interest in streamlines vehicles, boats and aircraft breaking a number of speed records
-Began to appear as an aesthetic feature in a wide range of products e.g. radios, kettles etc
-Coincided with an advancement in materials and manufacturing e.g. use of Bakelite (enabled more complex aesthetic features to be moulded
-As National Grid expanded demand for new consumer electrical goods increased
-New materials and processes utilised to meet demand

1940s Utility:
-WWII Britain not self sufficient, relied on imported timber
-Many homes bombed out, replacement furniture needed -Utility Furniture Committee established. Headed by George Russell
-Produced design plans for strong well made furniture from scare timber supplies
-Resembled early arts and crafts work (simple form, minimal surface decoration)
-Utility furniture continued after WWII until rationing ended

Post-War Design:
-During WWII there had been advancements in materials and electronics as well as research into user requirements
-K3 Kettle (made by Burrage and Boyd Ltd in 1946)
-Made from aluminium (from recycled aircraft) with a wooden handle
-Took some styling from pre-war streamlining
-Uncluttered smooth lines
-1950s = Interest in science and space, products influenced and took on the shape of rockets and ‘futuristic forms’
-Late 1950s = explosion in youth culture, new colourful products with new polymers

Post-Modernism:
-Reaction against the modernist movement
-Focus on aesthetic rather than the function of the product
-Use of ornamental and decorative features
-Borrowing of styles from Egypt etc
-Influences from media and fashion
-Memphis group e.g. Carlton Room Divider in Plastic Laminate and Etruscan Chair

British Industrial Design:
-Key designers of 20th century = Ken Grange, spanned 50 years
-Developed Kenwood food processors, Kodak cameras, Wilkinson Sword razors, Pens for Parker etc
-Grange believed products should be designed with consideration to their function and usability ‘good design’

21st Century Design:
-Development of 3D animation software, allows organic, free flowing forms by use of spheres and cylinders
-Led to products taking on a ‘blob’ appearance
-Made from injection moulded polymers, pressed or cast metal
-Volkswagen Beetle, Citroen C1 and C3 and Apple iMac -Some buildings designed this way (‘blobitecture’) e.g. Sage in Gateshead building by Norman Foster
-Use of anthropomorphism, application of human characteristics to inanimate objects
-Done to make products more appealing to use or ‘soften’ the interface between product and user e.g. ASIMO Honda robot
-Advancement in microelectronics and miniaturization of components > explosion of ‘Gizmos’
-Intended as statement pieces
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by 10hibbn)
Thankyou ! I will have a read through and make some notes ! this helps a lot
No worries at all, i think i did the same exam as you actually if you are AQA as we were the first cohort to do the new spec so that should all be up to date will get you the plastics stuff for tomorrow
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10hibbn
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Thank you
(Original post by CoolCavy)
No worries at all, i think i did the same exam as you actually if you are AQA as we were the first cohort to do the new spec so that should all be up to date will get you the plastics stuff for tomorrow
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CoolCavy
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(Original post by 10hibbn)
Thank you
Here's the plastic's stuff :hugs: (sorry it's a bit late )

• Plastics
Synthetic Plastics:
-Crude oil (plastics made by polymerisation, the joining of many monomers together), coal and gas

Natural Plastics:
-Animal horns (casein), Animal milk (formaldehyde), Insects (shellac), Plants (cellulose), Trees (latex and rubber)

Thermoplastics:
-Made up of long-chain molecules that can easily expand and move
when heated
-Has weak electrostatic (Van de Waals) forces between chains which
break when heated, this allows the plastic to become soft and pliable
(can be formed)
-Van de Waals bonds reform when cooled and the plastic hardens
-Can be reheated and reshaped

PET
-Capable of producing transparent containers
-Very common
-Bottles for pressurised
-Mouthwash bottles
-Liquid soap bottles
-When recycled can be used for loft insulation, carpet fibres and clothes

HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
-Some can be used for many years (durable)
-Resistant to chemicals
-Opaque
-Tougher than PET
-Bleach bottles
-Traffic cones (when recycled)
-Reusable water bottles

PVC (Polyvinyl chloride)
-Rigid
-Lightweight
-Resistant to acids and alkalis
-Can be used for transparent containers
-Can be dangerous when incinerated (due to chloride)
-Plasticised PVA can be used for hosepipes, electrical wiring and floor covering
-Transparent containers
-Pipes, guttering and roofing
-Umbrellas

LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)
-Flimsy and more pliable than HDPE
-Thin and lightweight
-Good tensile strength
-Carrier bags/bin liners
-Lids for microwave ready meal film

PP (Polypropylene)
-Products can be used for many years (durable)
-Can be transparent
-Hard to break (resists impact = tough)
-Milk and fruit juice bottles
-Jugs, bleach and detergent bottles, deodorant roll on containers

PS (Polystyrene)
-Stiff hard
-Can be dyed with pigments to create a range of colours
-Plates, Cutlery
-Compact disc, hot drinks cups (expanded polystyrene) and disposable cutlery
Acrylic
-Hard and stiff
-Brittle and notch sensitive
-Can be totally, optically clear (as clear as glass)
-Car lights

ABS
-Hard and tough
-Hardness comes from the styrene component
-Toughness comes from the blended rubber molecules
-Very common plastic for modern products
-TV remote

(EPS) Expanded Polystyrene
-Heat insulator
-Resistant to moisture
-Disposable food packing

Styrofoam
-can be easily cut or torn into precise shapes
-retains it's shape well (stable)
-lightweight
-inexpensive to purchase and work
-Can be painted
-Model products

Thermosetting Plastics:
-Sets with heat permanently
-Available usually as resins and powders that when mixed/heated set hard
-Good heat resistance
-Thermal and electrical insulators

Melamine Formaldehyde
-Hard
-Tough
-Can be coloured using pigments and dyes
-Electrical insulators
-Hard, scratch resistant, heat resistance
-Table top coverings
-Wall switch coverings
-Plug plastic

UF (Urea Formaldehyde)
-Hard
-Brittle
-Resists heat without softening
-Good thermal insulator
-Pan handles
-Toilet seats

Epoxy Resin
-High strength when reinforced with fibres (make GRP)
-Good chemical and wear resistance
-Castings (GRP used for boat hulls)

Elastomers
-Have elastic properties, will return to their original shape if compressed once the pressure is removed
-Soft to touch
-Can be injection moulded etc (thermoplastic)
-Can be coloured using using pigments and dyes
-Can be printed on

e.g LSR (Liquid Silicone Rubber)

Uses:
-Remote buttons
-Coverings for toothbrush handles
-Goggle surrounds

• Composites:
Composite = two contrasting materials combined to make a new material with enhanced properties

E.g:
-Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP):
-Mix of carbon fibres and resin
-High tensile strength but lightweight
Used for:
-Cars and sports equipment

Kevlar:
-mix of nylon-like molecules that are mixed and melted and spun into fibres
-The long-chain molecules are held together by strong hydrogen bonds
-Fibres are crossed over each other at 90 degrees which gives it a very high strength
Used for:
-Body armour
-Sports Equipment
-Sails
-Gloves

Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP):
-Chemical hardener
-Will set at room temperature, becomes hard and brittle
-Polyester resin can be reinforced with glass fibre
-Quite cheap
-lightweight
Used For:
-Boat hulls
-Vehicle bodies
-Sports equipment

Wet Layup:
Laying Up = the act of laminating e.g glass fibre matt and coating it with polyester resin

1)Mould (made previously) is coated with a releasing agent
2)Gel coat applied to the mould until a thickness of 1mm is achieved
3)After gel coat has cured a layer of catalysed lay-up polyester resin
is applied
4)The glass fibre matting is applied using a stiff brush until it is wetted
through and all the air is driven out
5)more layers are added until the required thickness is achieved
6)Surface tissue used as the final layer
7)Leave to set
8)Finished product removed from mould

Injection moulding
-complex 3D shapes
-Cups
-Lunch boxes
-Buttons
1)Thermoplastic granules fed into hopper
2)The Archimedean screw rotated by the motor forces the granules towards the heater
3)Heaters soften the plastic
4)Hydraulic ram forces it into the mould
5)mould is cooled and plastic sets. Flashes then removed
-Very complex 3D shapes can be produced
-High volumes can be produced with a consistent quality
-Metal inserts can be included
-Initial set up costs are high
-Moulds are expensive (need to be made out of thick walled metal to withstand the pressure of the ram)

Blow Moulding
-Bottles
1)parision of thermoplastic extruded downwards through a die (see extrusion)
2)mould halves close and trap the parision
3)Hot air blown into the mould and forces the plastic to the sides of the mould
4)Mould cools the polymer, allows it to be removed when set. Flashes removed
-One piece mouldings can be produced
-Ideal for rigid tough and flexible shapes
-Large range of sizes available
-Cheaper as high pressure not required
-Only hollow shapes can be produced
-More complex shapes would have to be injection moulded

Compression Moulding
-Bottle tops
1)a 'slug' (compressed powder) is placed between the two moulds
2)mould is heated until the powder melts
3)The mould is closed onto the preform and the pressure forces out any excess material
4)Pressure maintained to allow all of the cross links to form
5)Mould opened (doesn't have to cool completely)
-Moderately complex parts can be produced over long production runs
-Start up costs relatively low
-Moulds less expensive than injection moulding moulds
-Necessary to manufacture a preform
-Process restricted to products with low complexity

Vacuum Forming
1)Sheet plastic held above former
2)Plastic is heated until it softens
3)Former raised up into the plastic
4)Air pumped out (vacuum) and plastic pulled around former
5)When cool can be removed from the former
-Low cost process
-Good for smooth shapes with additional detail
-Deep moulds make the walls thinner where the plastic has been stretched
-Limited to simple designs
-Trimming usually needed

Extrusion
1)Thermoplastic granules fed into hopper
2)The Archimedean screw rotated by the motor forces the granules towards the heater
3)Heaters soften the plastic
4)Archimedean screw continuously pushes the plastic through a die to create a pipe section.
5)Cooled and cut at the end of the section
-Low cost process as it only requires simple dies not moulds
-Can only produce continuous cross shapes

Line Bending
1)Sheet plastic placed over a strip heater using a clamp
2)the plastic softens when heated
3)a bending former/jig is used to accurately bend the plastic when soft.
-Low cost
-Suitable for small batches and one off production
-Straight bends can be produced
-Even with a jig it isn't totally accurately
-Not suitable for mass production
-Material may burn

Calendering
1)Rollers heated to softening point of the plastic
2)Plastic is forced through the gap in the rollers (width of gap decides thickness of plastic sheet)
3)The final roller chills and cools the material
-Excellent control of product thickness
-Increases the strength of material
-Allows any desired texture or pattern to be applied
-High operating costs compared to other sheeting processes
-Low tolerances cause engineering problems
-Many mechanical parts that could fail

• Advantages of using plastics:
-Can be easily formed and shaped (so can be mass produced)
-Are pliable yet tough
-Hard (but can be brittle)
-Require little or no finishing (self-finished in mould)
-Can be coloured using pigments and dyes
-Can be optically clear or translucent
-Corrosion resistance and waterproof
-Lightweight (good strength to weight ratio)

• Disadvantages of using plastics:
-Can degrade over time (UV/sunlight) and become bleached of colour
-Mostly made from finite resources (crude oil)
-Does not decompose in the environment – has to be recycled
-Plastic bottles can leach toxins into the environment

• Biodegradable Plastics:
Biodegradeable = materials that will break down with the aid of natural processes

Polylactides (PLA)
Polylactide (PLA), is a renewable thermoplastic and a polymer. It is ‘processed’ from the starch of plants such as corn, sugar cane and sugar beet, making it environmentally friendly and sustainable. Fermentation of the sugars from these plants produces lactic acid and after further reactions, lactide forms. After more processing and polymerisation, polylactide resin is produced. The resulting resin can be injection and blow moulded, to form disposable products

Poly-hydroxy-alkanoate (PHA)/Poly-beta-hydrox-butyrate (PHB)/Starch based polymers:
-Produced naturally by using bacteria to ferment plant sugars
-Also known as Biopol
-The plastic is harvested from bacteria grown in cultures
-PHB has similar properties to polypropylene so is used for food packaging
-Bio degrades in the environment

Biopol is insoluble in water and will sink unlike the majority of ‘plastics’. Over time it will degrade harmlessly as it is non-toxic. It has a similar tensile strength to that of polypropylene. With a high melting point of 175 degrees centigrade, it can withstand most use, that requires resistance to hot liquids, such as beverages.

The main disadvantage, is that it more expensive to produce biopol than fossil fuel plastics. Biopol has a low resistance to acids and bases, including bleach. This restricts its use as ‘plastic’ packaging. Biopol does not resist impact as well as fossil fuel based plastics and cannot be used in situations such as containers, that could potentially be dropped or knocked. The fermentation process is longer, when compared to plastics processed from fossil fuels such as oil.

Oxo-degradable polymers:
-Oxo-degradable polymers / plastics are processed from oil, although they degrade over several months in soil and landfills, due to the action of oxygen and micro-organisms.
-They are regularly used by the packaging industry and promoted as environmentally friendly. Polyethylene is frequently the basis of oxo-degradable plastics.
-have additives that promote short degradation
-Helps the polymer break down into fine powder from the effects oh heat, oxygen, moisture etc
-Plastic gloves and packaging

Water soluble polymers
-Synthetic water-soluble polymers are organic substances that dissolve, disperse or swell in water and thus modify the physical properties of aqueous systems undergoing gellation, thickening or emulsification/stabilization.
-Used in liquid detergent pouches to dispense detergent only when in contact with warm water
the cost of biodegradable plastics remains more expensive than ordinary plastics due to the cost of production

• Plastic Additives:
Fillers:
-Used to reduce the bulk of the plastic
-Generally cheaper than the actual plasticise
-Some fillers can remove brittleness

Flame-Retardants:
-Used to reduce the risk of combustion
-Releases an agent that stops combustion if combustion occurs as part of a chemical reaction
-Used in seating cushions

Anti-Static Agents:
-Reduce the effects of static charges that build up on a product
-Used in carpets

Plasticiser:
-Added to make the plastic 'flow' when being formed
-E.g injection moulding
-Used to make the plastic less brittle

Foamants:
-Allows for a less dense structure
-Become more 'sponge-like' and tougher

Stabilisers:
-Reduce ultraviolet deterioration
-Important in window frames
-Important aesthetically and structurally
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