Edexcel A Level Geography Paper 1 [unofficial markscheme] Watch

orangeorangutan
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Thought this would be a good place to share answers to the exam. Once there are responses, I will compile a list of all the questions on this original post with answers. Hope it went okay for everyone

Disclaimer: these are all answers taken from other TSR users and may not be correct, please comment if you feel something is wrong, thank you!

Evil Homer please could you add this to the list of unofficial mark schemes, thank you!

TECTONICS

1ai) Mean (1)
98.8

1aii) Median (1)
11

1aiii) Interquartile Range (2)
153

1b) Assess...strategies...reduce impacts of tectonic hazards (12)
-modify cause/event
-modify vulnerability/ resilience
-governance and corruption
-hard to manage if unpredictable
-accessibilty
-development
-type of hazard
-size of hazard
-PAR model and hazard management cycle?


GLACIATION

2a) Erosional processes in the picture (6)
-back angular wall and plucking
-rotational slip and abrasion

2b) Depositional processes in the picture(6)
-ground moraine

2c) (8)

2d) (20)



COASTS

3a) Marine erosional processes in the picture (6)
-hydraulic action
-abrasion
-corrosion
-wave cut notch and platform
-destructive coastline
-differential erosion

3b) Depositional processes in the picture (6)
-constructive waves
-dune succession
-beach?
-LSD

3c) Why there are different management strategies at different coastal landscapes (8)
-soft engineering and hard engineering
-cost benefit analysis (CBA)
-environmental impact assessment (EIA)
-4 main strategies
-balance needs of different people

3d) Evaluate the extent to which coastal flood risk increasing is mainly due to sea level rise (20)
-eustatic change
-storm surges
-climate change
-population density
-mangrove removal
-post glacial adjustment


CARBON AND WATER

4a) Brazil and biofuels using figure(3)
-carbon source as trees removed to created space for crops
-less carbon in atmosphere as biofuels have lower carbon footprint

4b) Explain how economic development impacts energy mix (6)
-emerging/developing exploiting primary resources
-investing money in non-renewables
-different economy levels have different needs
-more cars in developed so oil reliance
-developing more likely to use biomass

4c) Uncertainty regarding amount of carbon released by permafrost and peatland (8)
-permafrost might thaw as temperatures decrease
-tipping point
-positive feedback loop so hard to predict
-albedo effect

4d) Physical factors and water stress (12)
-climate
-ENSO
-hadley/ferrel cells
-physical water availability
-rate of water consumption
-wealth of nation

4e) Evaluate the extent to which large scale water management projects create more problems than they solve for people and the environment (20)
-water transfer project e.g. south-north china
-mega dams e.g 3 gorges dam
-desalination plants e.g. israel
-change biodiversity
-livelihood impacted as less fish
-people displaced
-pollution
-provides power

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MASSIVE THANK YOU to all of these people for their contribution:
Motivation101
Jacob Billyeald
evc
thilly27
BrDy
12JMiller
Last edited by orangeorangutan; 3 weeks ago
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Motivation101
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Tectonics:

4 marks - Maths questions - 2 marks

Assess question 12 marker - Reasons of strategies to reduce impacts of tectonic hazards

Modify cause/event - most effective cause tackle the cause

Modify vulnerability and resilience - less effective as it has a lot to do with government (corrupt weak govt not as much)

Modify in aid, recovery and reconstruction for shot term and long term - good and level of economic development varies success (hazard management cycle slower)

Conclusion - modify cause and event is the best but also expensive so might want support


Coasts

6 marker:

Cliff - wave cut notch and platform can be seen, horizontal bedding planes
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orangeorangutan
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wow, this is so helpful! Thank you, I will start adding this to the original post
(Original post by Motivation101)
Tectonics:

4 marks - Maths questions - 2 marks

Assess question 12 marker - Reasons of strategies to reduce impacts of tectonic hazards

Modify cause/event - most effective cause tackle the cause

Modify vulnerability and resilience - less effective as it has a lot to do with government (corrupt weak govt not as much)

Modify in aid, recovery and reconstruction for shot term and long term - good and level of economic development varies success (hazard management cycle slower)

Conclusion - modify cause and event is the best but also expensive so might want support


Coasts

6 marker:

Cliff - wave cut notch and platform can be seen, horizontal bedding planes & overhahnging due to differential erosion etc.

Abrasion - dented bits of the cliff near the base. Waves throw sediment and rocks being carried scaring the beach face.


6 marker

Beach due to deposition of sediment being carried.

Vegetation - plant succession stabilised and extended by deposition.


8 marker management strategy

Soft and hard - soft amenity whereas hard is ugly therefor white might be used.

CBA - protect some and not protect others because of economic value of what’s being protected as opposed to the management costs

EIA - dune stabilisation might be used instead especially if there is ecosystems at risk


20 marker - sea level rise main

Could be main - ecstatic is global but it is intensified by climate change leading to snow melt.

Could be main - storm surges increase sea level e.g Bangladesh but exacerbated by factors such as vegetation removal

May not be the main - human factors such as ground subsidence and dredging but this is only local.

May not be the main - coastal retreat e.g holder ness but geology and lithology. But this is local and sea level rise causes this

Conclusion - sea level is the main however because it is what impacts the nature of costal flooding though human factors and other factors might increase its impacts.


Carbon

3 marker - increase in biodiesel production - suggests increase in crops thus deforestation for space. Increase in carbon because trees are carbon sinks but have been removed to grow plants.

6 markers - level of economic development on energy mix

Money to invest into finding non renewables - e.g Germany

Increase economic development - more industries and need to retain TNCS e.g China largest industry and also the largest importers


8 marker - uncertainty regarding peatland and permafrost release carbon

Peatland - coal is non renewable so it might run out soon and peat is the stage before coal.

Permafrost might thaw as temperatures increase due to global warming releasing carbon dioxide

Tipping point of the earth - come back to equilibrium.


12 marker - I messed up


20 markers - large scale management projects

Water transfer project - south to north in China, good for Beijing and the 30% populations but might over drain - less for agriculture use in south and also ecosystems disrupted.

Mega dams - 3 gorges dam - good cuz it release water in times of water stress but not good for people who have to relocate.

Desalination plants - Israel 5. Good as more fresh water but 600 tonnes of salt produced. Encroaches ecosystem especially harmful for those organisms who are sensitive to salinity.

Conclusion - large scale useful globally and for larger amounts but need to use sustainable methods for example smart irrigation’s and recycling water like steps taken by Singapore.
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Jacob Billyeald
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(Original post by orangeorangutan)
Thought this would be a good place to share answers to the exam. Once there are responses, I will compile a list of all the questions on this original post with answers. Hope it went okay for everyone

Evil Homer please could you add this to the list of unofficial mark schemes, thank you!
(12 marker tectonic)

- PAR model, hazard management cycle
- Response, recovery, mitigation and preparedness (Root causes, governance, location, aid)
- Case studies eg Christchurch, Haiti etc

(6 marker coast, 3a)

- Hydraulic action, abrasion
- Wave-cut notch
- destructive coastline (waves)

(6 marker coast, 3b)

- Constructive waves (greater swash)
- dune succession (marram grass, embryo dune, yellow dune)
- sandy beach?

(3 marker, Brazil biofuels)

- Define biofuel (fuel source from organic material eg palm oil)
- increase in crop yield (more afforestation) i think roughly past 2011-2012 (unsure)
- mention carbon sequestration (refer to carbon cycle) removal of carbon from atmosphere (more stores)

(6 marker, carbon energy mix)

- Emerging/developing countries eg BRICS (I mainly stated India, China and Saudi Arabia)
- Exploiting coal, oil (primary energy sources) and exports
- Economy rises eg possible increase in middle class consumption?

can't remember what I put for the other questions but I will edit/update if I remember
Last edited by Jacob Billyeald; 3 weeks ago
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evc
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Tectonic 12 marker: For the tectonics essay I spoke about governance and corruption and how they choose the strategies and affect how well they are implemented. I also said that it’s hard to manage events that have unpredictable impacts, such as we don’t know where earthquakes will hit, but overall govs should be responsible for preparing despite this. I then said that mitigative strategies might by more effective than adaption but it’s down to govs to decide which to use in the end.
Glaciation: 6 marker on érosion: spoke about the back angular back wall and plucking, the deeper bottom of the Corrie due to rotational slip and abrasion and the rock lol having striations from abrasion.
6marker on deposition: said that ground moraine caused it essentially.
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thilly27
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12 marker physical factors on water stress
climate distribution like Brazil Is water secure due to the Amazon regulating the climate
talked about the Aral Sea shrinking due to over abstraction but initially they have low rainfall
talked about ENSO but didn't do it detail (Australia drought) but also the over abstraction of water from Murray darling river

conclusion - initial cause is physical but human enhance the risk even further
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Kerrmit_
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Dam you seem to have done well! Was desalination Definetly a 'large scale water management project' surely that is just an example of techno fix and 'large scale' is just water transfer and mega dams? Also do you think you had to refer to the source for the water 12makrer?
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thilly27
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yep refer to the source
(Original post by Kerrmit_)
Dam you seem to have done well! Was desalination Definetly a 'large scale water management project' surely that is just an example of techno fix and 'large scale' is just water transfer and mega dams? Also do you think you had to refer to the source for the water 12makrer?
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Discrepancy
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I didn’t even know what a biofuel was! I was going to cry in that exam.
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evc
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No I think desalination would have counted, I spoke about dams and conflict/issues for environment and people. I also said about water sustainability in Israel wasn’t bad for people or environment

(Original post by Kerrmit_)
Dam you seem to have done well! Was desalination Definetly a 'large scale water management project' surely that is just an example of techno fix and 'large scale' is just water transfer and mega dams? Also do you think you had to refer to the source for the water 12makrer?
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orangeorangutan
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thank you so much, I have added these to the post
(Original post by Jacob Billyeald)
(12 marker tectonic)

- PAR model, hazard management cycle
- Response, recovery, mitigation and preparedness (Root causes, governance, location, aid)
- Case studies eg Christchurch, Haiti etc

(6 marker coast, 3a)

- Hydraulic action, abrasion
- Wave-cut notch
- destructive coastline (waves)

(6 marker coast, 3b)

- Constructive waves (greater swash)
- dune succession (marram grass, embryo dune, yellow dune)
- sandy beach?

(6 marker, carbon energy mix)

- Emerging/developing countries eg BRICS (I mainly stated India, China and Saudi Arabia)
- Exploiting coal, oil (primary energy sources) and exports
- Economy rises eg possible increase in middle class consumption?

can't remember what I put for the other questions but I will edit/update if I remember
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orangeorangutan
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thank you both

(Original post by evc)
Tectonic 12 marker: For the tectonics essay I spoke about governance and corruption and how they choose the strategies and affect how well they are implemented. I also said that it’s hard to manage events that have unpredictable impacts, such as we don’t know where earthquakes will hit, but overall govs should be responsible for preparing despite this. I then said that mitigative strategies might by more effective than adaption but it’s down to govs to decide which to use in the end.
Glaciation: 6 marker on érosion: spoke about the back angular back wall and plucking, the deeper bottom of the Corrie due to rotational slip and abrasion and the rock lol having striations from abrasion.
6marker on deposition: said that ground moraine caused it essentially.
(Original post by thilly27)
12 marker physical factors on water stress
climate distribution like Brazil Is water secure due to the Amazon regulating the climate
talked about the Aral Sea shrinking due to over abstraction but initially they have low rainfall
talked about ENSO but didn't do it detail (Australia drought) but also the over abstraction of water from Murray darling river

conclusion - initial cause is physical but human enhance the risk even further
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isharobbie
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I used the Aral sea and Nike Water Agreement for management, with a brief mention about South-North China, seeing as it isn't finished so we don't know it's impacts
(Original post by Kerrmit_)
Dam you seem to have done well! Was desalination Definetly a 'large scale water management project' surely that is just an example of techno fix and 'large scale' is just water transfer and mega dams? Also do you think you had to refer to the source for the water 12makrer?
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livvj01
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For the water stress, could you have put salt water encroachment and then ENSO
(Original post by orangeorangutan)
thank you both
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Jdjdid
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Does anyone know the grade boundaries?
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Telamonian Ajax
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(Original post by Jdjdid)
Does anyone know the grade boundaries?
The exam only just occurred
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tednx
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What did everyone get in their NEA?
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Jacob Billyeald
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(Original post by Jdjdid)
Does anyone know the grade boundaries?
That will depend on how well everyone else did on this A-level, if people did good then the boundaries will be high however if everyone did below average then the boundaries will be lowered
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(Original post by orangeorangutan)
Thought this would be a good place to share answers to the exam. Once there are responses, I will compile a list of all the questions on this original post with answers. Hope it went okay for everyone

Disclaimer: these are all answers taken from other TSR users and may not be correct, please comment if you feel something is wrong, thank you!

Evil Homer please could you add this to the list of unofficial mark schemes, thank you!

TECTONICS

1ai) Mean (1)
98.8

1aii) Median (1)
11

1aiii) Interquartile Range (2)
153

1b) Assess...strategies...reduce impacts of tectonic hazards (12)
-modify cause/event
-modify vulnerability/ resilience
-governance and corruption
-hard to manage if unpredictable
-PAR model
-hazard and response cycle


GLACIATION

2a) Erosional processes in the picture (6)
-back angular wall and plucking
-rotational slip and abrasion

2b) Depositional processes in the picture(6)
-ground moraine

2c) (8)

2d) (20)



COASTS

3a) Marine erosional processes in the picture (6)
-hydraulic action
-abrasion
-wave cut notch and platform
-destructive coastline
-differential erosion

3b) Depositional processes in the picture (6)
-constructive waves
-dune succession
-beach?

3c) Why there are different management strategies at different coastal landscapes (8)
-soft engineering and hard engineering
-cost benefit analysis (CBA)
-environmental impact assessment (EIA)

3d) Evaluate the extent to which coastal flood risk increasing is mainly due to sea level rise (20)
-eustatic change
-storm surges
-climate change
-population density


CARBON AND WATER

4a) Brazil and biofuels using figure(3)
-carbon source as trees removed to created space for crops

4b) Explain how economic development impacts energy mix (6)
- emerging/developing exploiting primary resources
-investing money in non-renewables


4c) Uncertainty regarding amount of carbon released by permafrost and peatland (8)
-
-permafrost might thaw as temperatures decrease
-tipping point

4d) Physical factors and water stress (12)
-climate
-ENSO

4e) Evaluate the extent to which large scale water management projects create more problems than they solve for people and the environment (20)
-water transfer project e.g. south-north china
-mega dams e.g 3 gorges dam
-desalination plants e.g. israel

Spoiler:
Show
MASSIVE THANK YOU to all of these people for their contribution:
Motivation101
Jacob Billyealdevc
thilly27
For the Maths, do you reckon they'll allow answers that would be correct using the A level maths UQ and LQ formulas?
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Phoebe Jones
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I messed this exam right up
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