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4 marks - Maths questions - 2 marks
Assess question 12 marker - Reasons of strategies to reduce impacts of tectonic hazards
Modify cause/event - most effective cause tackle the cause
Modify vulnerability and resilience - less effective as it has a lot to do with government (corrupt weak govt not as much)
Modify in aid, recovery and reconstruction for shot term and long term - good and level of economic development varies success (hazard management cycle slower)
Conclusion - modify cause and event is the best but also expensive so might want support
Cliff - wave cut notch and platform can be seen, horizontal bedding planes & overhahnging due to differential erosion etc.
Abrasion - dented bits of the cliff near the base. Waves throw sediment and rocks being carried scaring the beach face.
Beach due to deposition of sediment being carried.
Vegetation - plant succession stabilised and extended by deposition.
8 marker management strategy
Soft and hard - soft amenity whereas hard is ugly therefor white might be used.
CBA - protect some and not protect others because of economic value of what’s being protected as opposed to the management costs
EIA - dune stabilisation might be used instead especially if there is ecosystems at risk
20 marker - sea level rise main
Could be main - ecstatic is global but it is intensified by climate change leading to snow melt.
Could be main - storm surges increase sea level e.g Bangladesh but exacerbated by factors such as vegetation removal
May not be the main - human factors such as ground subsidence and dredging but this is only local.
May not be the main - coastal retreat e.g holder ness but geology and lithology. But this is local and sea level rise causes this
Conclusion - sea level is the main however because it is what impacts the nature of costal flooding though human factors and other factors might increase its impacts.
3 marker - increase in biodiesel production - suggests increase in crops thus deforestation for space. Increase in carbon because trees are carbon sinks but have been removed to grow plants.
6 markers - level of economic development on energy mix
Money to invest into finding non renewables - e.g Germany
Increase economic development - more industries and need to retain TNCS e.g China largest industry and also the largest importers
8 marker - uncertainty regarding peatland and permafrost release carbon
Peatland - coal is non renewable so it might run out soon and peat is the stage before coal.
Permafrost might thaw as temperatures increase due to global warming releasing carbon dioxide
Tipping point of the earth - come back to equilibrium.
12 marker - I messed up
20 markers - large scale management projects
Water transfer project - south to north in China, good for Beijing and the 30% populations but might over drain - less for agriculture use in south and also ecosystems disrupted.
Mega dams - 3 gorges dam - good cuz it release water in times of water stress but not good for people who have to relocate.
Desalination plants - Israel 5. Good as more fresh water but 600 tonnes of salt produced. Encroaches ecosystem especially harmful for those organisms who are sensitive to salinity.
Conclusion - large scale useful globally and for larger amounts but need to use sustainable methods for example smart irrigation’s and recycling water like steps taken by Singapore.