CurrentlyAtLevel
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Is the type of bonding in TiCl4 ionic or covalent ?
And how you do you know ? I expected it to be ionic since it’s a metal bonded to a non metal but that’s gcse stuff and there’s probably a better explanation
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hi_imcatherine
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Its bonds are covalent. Titanium and chlorine have very similar electronegativity.
Last edited by hi_imcatherine; 8 months ago
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CurrentlyAtLevel
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(Original post by hi_imcatherine)
Its bonds are covalent. Titanium and chlorine have very similar electronegativity.
Right but how am I supposed to know that ?
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Kian Stevens
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Titanium is able to form dative covalent bonds with chloride ligands, due to vacant orbitals in titanium accepting the ligands' lone pairs
This process results in covalent bonds, not ionic bonds, being formed
Last edited by Kian Stevens; 8 months ago
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hi_imcatherine
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(Original post by CurrentlyAtLevel)
Right but how am I supposed to know that ?
You wouldn’t. I’m surprised this has been asked of you.
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Kian Stevens
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(Original post by hi_imcatherine)
You wouldn’t. I’m surprised this has been asked of you.
Obviously not at GCSE
But at A-level, knowing how complexes such as TiCl4 are formed is required
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Miqueas
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Hello
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CurrentlyAtLevel
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(Original post by Kian Stevens)
Obviously not at GCSE
But at A-level, knowing how complexes such as TiCl4 are formed is required
[ltr]The chloride isn’t acting as a ligand here .
and even if it was , how am I supposed to know when I wasn’t told anything about it ?
Heres the question [/ltr]
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Kian Stevens
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(Original post by CurrentlyAtLevel)
[ltr]The chloride isn’t acting as a ligand here .
and even if it was , how am I supposed to know when I wasn’t told anything about it ?
Heres the question [/ltr]
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A ligand is any molecule or ion which can donate a lone pair of electrons to a central metal atom via coordinate bonding
The chloride ions are doing exactly that in this case
TiCl4 is a coordination complex where four chloride ligands have donated lone pairs of electrons to titanium's vacant orbitals, in order to form coordinate bonds...
Hence, chloride ions are acting as ligands in TiCl4

How do you know this?
Well, transition metals usually do behave like this, as per their nature... It's just something you have to become aware of
Last edited by Kian Stevens; 8 months ago
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CurrentlyAtLevel
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(Original post by Kian Stevens)
A ligand is any molecule or ion which can donate a lone pair of electrons to a central metal atom via coordinate bonding
The chloride ions are doing exactly that in this case
TiCl4 is a complex ion where four chloride ligands have donated lone pairs of electrons to titanium's vacant orbitals, in order to form coordinate bonds...
Hence, chloride ions are acting as ligands in TiCl4

How do you know this?
Well, transition metals usually do behave like this, as per their nature... It's just something you have to become aware of
I don’t get it, I mean, I get what you said about a ligand & a TM behaving like this but I don’t get how we just assumed the Cl- would be ligands in this case
They could just as likely be anions based on what did I rule that out ?
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Kian Stevens
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(Original post by CurrentlyAtLevel)
I don’t get it, I mean, I get what you said about a ligand & a TM behaving like this but I don’t get how we just assumed the Cl- would be ligands in this case
They could just as likely be anions based on what did I rule that out ?
Like I said, it's just something you have to become aware of

Transition metals in particular favour the formation of coordination complexes, where they coordinate bond to ligands, instead of the formation of ionic compounds

I feel as though you're just applying the general thought that metal cations form ionic bonds with non-metal anions... That's not the case for transition metals
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CurrentlyAtLevel
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(Original post by Kian Stevens)
Like I said, it's just something you have to become aware of

Transition metals in particular favour the formation of coordination complexes, where they coordinate bond to ligands, instead of the formation of ionic compounds

I feel as though you're just applying the general thought that metal cations form ionic bonds with non-metal anions... That's not the case for transition metals
Are the chloride ions in CuCl2 ligands?
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Kian Stevens
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(Original post by CurrentlyAtLevel)
Are the chloride ions in CuCl2 ligands?
I'd like to say yes, and that CuCl2 is a covalent coordination complex
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CurrentlyAtLevel
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Why do you keep saying ion when neither TiCl4 nor CuCl2 have a charge ?
(Original post by Kian Stevens)
I'd like to say yes, and that CuCl2 is a covalent complex ion
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Kian Stevens
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(Original post by CurrentlyAtLevel)
Why do you keep saying ion when neither TiCl4 nor CuCl2 have a charge ?
My apologies, I meant to just say coordination complex, will update things
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