German reading comprehension and writing (checklist)Watch
First off, I'm just going to start with a checklist that should give you a grade 9 if you use nearly all of them.
Tenses; pluperfect, present perfect, imperfect, present, future, conditional.
Time phrases + Time w/ prepositions
Tenses Word order
Comparatives & superlatives
I'm not sure if this is all, so if anyone has anything else, please tell me
- The perfect tense
The perfect tense, also called present perfect (Perfekt), is a past tense. We use it to speak about actions completed in the recent past. It is used to describe something that you have done, but maybe do often and are likely to do again, eg:
Ich habe ein Film gesehen – I saw a film
The subject + auxiliary verb + the past participle, eg:
Ich habe gelernt – I studied
Ich (SUBJECT) habe (AUXILIARY VERB) gelernt (PAST PARTICIPLE)
Now if you're anything like me, you're probably thinking: "wtf is auxiliary" - Well, here it is: The auxiliary verbs you use with the past participle are either haben (to have) or sein (to be).
So an overall summary: the present perfect describes actions that leaves a possibility that you might do it again.
- The imperfect tense:
The imperfect tense is used to describe a particular event in the past, which no longer has a link to the present. It’s mainly used to write reports, articles or novels.
It tends to be used to describe one particular event in the past, rather than things that have happened in the past in general. For example, you may want to describe a particular concert you went to or a holiday you had.
Ich machte meine Hausaufgaben. – I did my homework.
Basically it doesn't use an auxiliary verb; haben or sein.
- The Pluperfect tense
We use this tense in storytelling together with the simple past, to look back at something that happened before a past event.
[I'm going to take a break typing, it takes forever to do these things - I'll edit soon(ish)]