Sweetiele
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Hello, I've started a online access course and struggling with my first assignment!! its been over 10 years since i studied so think it is going to take some getting used to.

Please can someone advise on the validity of psychological research im struggling with a assignment. I feel like ive gone completely off the point im meant to be getting at.

The question is as follows

Explain what is meant by “the scientific method”.
You should identify what is meant by the scientific method, the methodology that makes
psychology scientific, and explain the benefit of this in terms of the validity of psychological
research, for example, research designs (repeated measures, independent measures
design) and research methods (sampling strategies, variables – IV, DV and the control of
extraneous variables).
(Indicative word count – 300 words)



Ive reached over 300 and not mentioned any benefits and I have no idea how to word it... heres what ive written,


What is “The scientific Method”? The scientific method is a empirical step by step method used by psychologists to test hypothesis and theories, its designed to eliminated bias and subjective input and to produce valid accurate results.

To begin a question has to be formed, something you may want to identify. For example you may have an interest in if people who study as well as work under go more stress than those students who just study. You would then do some background research.

A hypothesis then has to be formed, a hypothesis “is a prediction of the relationship between two variables: the independent variable and the dependent variable” https://examples.yourdictionary.com/...ypothesis.html)

The hypothesis for this could be "If you work and study are you are at higher stress than if you just study”

A independent variable (IV) is the variable that can be changed and a dependent variable(DV) is what is affected by the independent variable. The part you have no control over. Anything else that could affect the study is a extraneous variable. In this instance the IV is the hours works and studied and the DV is the stress level.

A research method then has to be designed in order to investigate the hypothesis scientifically and collect the needed data, this can either be experimental or non experimental. The main research methods and techniques used by psychologists are;
-The Laboratory Experiment
-Field Experiment
-Observation
-Interviews
-Questionnaire
-Case studies.

The data produced is then collected analysed. Data produced can be quantitative data which is numerical, such as time or qualitative data which is non-numerical such as verbal reports.Once conclusions are drawn the results can then be shared.

As you can see there are many steps to the scientific method, each step plays a vital role in producing strong valid and results.


thankyou for any advise or pointers x
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Herbie-gem01
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To write an evaluation point (benefit or weakness) use PEC points
P= point—> one strength/weakness is
E=explain—> because... suggested by this...
C=conclusion—> this is a strength/weakness because (link to validity, reliability, generalisability etc.)
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Herbie-gem01
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Valid= accuracy
Reliable= consistency
Eg. A test could be marked by a teacher with a mark scheme- so it’s accurate. No mark scheme would make it inaccurate.
If the students scores were getting the same score every time, they would be reliable.

Field experiments and observations are more valid because participants can’t give demand characteristics- because consent isn’t required until data is collected.
Case studies are valid because they are in lots of detail.
The others could be less valid because of demand characteristics.

Lab experiments, interviews and questionnaires are reliable because they can be repeated to get the same results.
Case studies, field experiments and observations are less reliable as they can’t easily be repeated
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nzy
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You could broadly explain the benefits of the scientific method having so many variable standardised components (the different experimental methods and designs), e.g. how this allows psychological research to be versatile (which is especially important when dealing with people and human events); how different methods allow you to test for internal validity and external validity to different extents, etc. Then you could give specific examples of some research methods and designs (rather than just listing all the ones you can think of) that relate to the point.
You could also compare the benefits of a scientific approach to other approaches in the history of psychology, such as philosophical approaches.
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Afterlife?
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The scientific method uses experiments to determine a causal relationship between 2 variables. This is done by controlling all other variables that are not the independent or the dependent variable. By having such control, we can be sure that any observed change in the dependent variable is a direct result of the manipulation of the independent variable, and therefore a causal link can be established.

Validity refers to whether psychological research produces a result that is legitimate. If the finding is valid, this means that the finding is genuine and represents what actually occurs in the real world. This includes whether the researchers have measured what they intended to measure, as well as the extent to which findings can be generalised beyond the research setting where they were found. Findings are valid if the research can be replicated across different contexts and cultures, and achieve the same findings. To be able to successfully replicate research, the original research must have high level of internal and external validity.

experimental research often has higher internal validity than other research methods, as such control in experiments means that we can be more confident that the changes in DV is only due to the IV, and therefore any findings from this research is of high internal validity.

However, in order to conduct experimental research using an IV and a DV, we must clearly operationalise our variables. This often means that tasks used to measure the DV have to be very specific and straightforward, which often does not represent tasks that occur in everyday life. Furthermore, the more controls you put in, the more artificial the situation becomes, and this means that the situation does not represent everyday life, and therefore the results and findings cannot be used to explain behaviour in the real world. This therefore means the research would lack external validity.

experimental research is just a trade-off between internal validity and external validity. If you have too many controls, you wont have external validity. And if you have too little control, you wont have internal validity. Although there are some exceptions such as lots of medical research as hospitals are basically labs so you can have both.
Last edited by Afterlife?; 9 months ago
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