Phoebe Jones
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I am really struggling will all of the 2 years of biopsychology, can anyone help me? the exam is on Friday
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which topics in biopsychology?
Localisation? Lateralisation? Brain plasticity? Biological rthyms? Or synaptic transmission?
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for synaptic transmission
- action potential arrives to the terminal button of the pre synaptic neuron
- the action potential triggers the synaptic vesicles which contains neurotransmitters ( chemical messengers) to fuse with the pre synaptic neuron's membrane
- the neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft/ gap and diffuses down the diffusion gradient across the synaptic cleft/ gap to the post synaptic neuron's surface receptors which are specific to the neurotransmitters and so binds with it.
- rmb to mention whether it is a excitatory neurotransmitters e.g. dopamine which can bring in an excitatory response on the post synaptic neurons which basically is triggering an action potential on the post synaptic neuron aka depolarization. or inhibitory neurotransmitter such as GABA which binds to the receptors on the post synaptic neuron and causing the post synaptic neuron to be more negatively charged in the axon therefore unable to generate an action potential aka hyperpolarisation.

Localisation basically believes that each brain region is responsible for a certain function and damage to that area would result permanent loss of the function.
key thing to rmb is that the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for controlling and recieveing information on the right side of the body and vice versa.
you just got to learn the brain structure unfortunately. but remember that all the language centers like Broca's area and Wernicke's area are only in the left hemisphere. Broca's area is in the frontal lobe below the motor cortex and is responsible for language production. mention about Tan Broca's patient who had no problem with understanding the language however could only say the word Tan. later on however they found that Tan's Brain wasn't only damaged in the Broca's area but also in other parts. recent neurologist had also found that Broca's area was also responsible in dealing with complex cognitive tasks like maths. Wernicke's area is dealing with understanding language. which Wernicke has studied this using I think was 11 patients who had damaged in their wernicke's area and found they could produce fluent language and speech however it was all non sense and found difficulties in understanding or interpreting or selecting the right words to describe what they want to express.

Motor cortex, Somatosensory cortex, visual cortex and the Auditory centres are found in both hemispheres.
motor cortex in the frontal lobe
somatosensory cortex in the parietal lobe and is next to the motor cortex
occipital cortex is obviously in the occipital lobe
and auditory cortex you got to be careful with is in the temporal lobe close to wernicke's area. be careful and don't mix the two up in terms of location.

motor cortex deals with Voluntary movements.
somatosensory cortex deals with sensory information relating to touch pressure pain temperature. remember the somatosensory cortex has each area devoted to a body part like the motor cortex. the more sensitive a body part is the bigger area it occupies in the somatosensory cortex.

visual cortex basically deals with visual information which is first detected by photoreceptors in our eyes then these info are converted to nerve impulses which are sent to the optic nerve then to the visual cortex. in the occipital cortex there are different areas which deals with different information such as one for size another for color.

auditory centres deals with sound information. first received from the cochlea which converts sound waves to nerve impulses then sent via the auditory nerve to the brain stem then to the thalamus where most sound is decoded then finally to the auditory centres.

Lateralisation believes that each hemisphere are responsible for different functions to the other hemisphere.
left hemisphere is for analytical thoughts e.g. maths people. and most importantly dominant for language rmb Broca's area and Wernicke's area are both on the left. right hemisphere is for creativity and spatial tasks.
usually in non split brain population these two hemispheres work together as a highly interrogated system as they would share the information received on one hemisphere to the other as well. this communication is by using the corpus callous which epilepsy patients would get these removed to reduce their seizures.

then you can use the split brain research by Sperry and Gazzaniga's research as either a A01 or A03 as supporting evidence.
procedure was
-11 split brain patients who had their corpus callosum removed. ( epilepsy patients)
- using a T-scope which is basically a table which has a screen in front of the table that was split into two.
- Ps were asked to put their hands below the screen.
- the screen would then show either a stimulus or image on one of the screens or both (different) for less than 1/10 of a second which is too fast for the human eye to move from one side to the other. therefore if a cat was shown in the left screen only the left eye would see it and processed to the right hemisphere. and vise versa.

findings were
when the image or word was shown on the right screen ( processed in the left hemisphere) Ps were able to say what they saw.
when the image or word was shown on the left screen ( processed in the right hemisphere) Ps said they saw nothing or can't describe. but when given alternative objects to ask participants to pick out from they could use their left hand to identify what the objet they sawn was.
there are more findings but you can go check it out cuz I'm not sure

hopefully this can help you. good luck! btw please do check with your book cuz I might be wrong so no guarantee it's 100% right.

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