A-level Edexcel Geography Paper 2 Unofficial Markscheme

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TheAlchemistress
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Type your answer below and I will add it.
Going to add the answers below.
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Globalisation
i)
-Global shift is good for developed countries because it allows cheaper labor overseas. This allows a developed country to focus on tertiary/quaternary sectors, and increase their GDP. Whilst in developing countries it allows them to be developed and carry out primary/secondary jobs.
-Global shift in manufacturing East means most polluting industries e.g Steel industry from the UK has been moved to countries like China. Therefore most developed countries as a result of economic restructuring have displaced their problem.
4 marks

ii)
Messed this up so badly.
-I talked about Cuba (not a community I know) and how the coast is affected due to beach resorts.
-Globalisation allows local communities to reduce their carbon footprint due to locally sourced goods.
-Local communities would rather walk than use cars, decreases CO2 levels, doesn't harm the environment
-Spectacular gardens attracts tourists rather than being exploited
-Farm diversification allows less imports - less emissions of CO2
- Recycling schemes - differing in education rates etc
- Local sourcing and transitions towns
- Fair trade
Then positives and negatives on the environment
- The most successful method is localism and transition towns encouraged production of goods e.g growing fruits and vegetables in local areas. Makes the local area look appealing, reduces contribution to the environment but also successful socially and economically as it provides jobs and self sufficiency.
- Amazon tribes lost lifestyles and loss of value for their land meant deforestation - First Nations canada aim to retain their culture and value for their land. Successful but cannot be applied to all local environments globally
- Least successful - recycling. Helps manage waste locally but if biodegradable packing is used it reduced all together you wouldn’t need so much packaging in the local environment anyway.
- Conclusion - most successful is localism
12 marks

Superpowers

i)
-Hated this question - I talked about BRICs being a multipolar world
-They are emerging and work together
-Out-sourcing to India e.g. call centres
-China known to be workshop of the world - manufacturing shifted to them
- talked about USA declining economically
- Global shift East means countries like China are economically strengthening
- These countries could be similar in terms of economy
4 marks

ii)
South china sea in dispute
-Goes against the UN law of sea
-China wants to build a military base for an army
-Interdependence in Africa
-Relationship in 2015 was worth $230 million
-China exploits Africa for it's resources
-The USA exploit resources because they are dominant
-The USA and other superpowers have access to other alternative energy sources such as Tar sands and Shale. but emerging countries don't
-China in Africa - tensions of resources like firewood and oil insecurity
-Conflict between Saudi and Iran for resources in Iraq
- superpowers disproportionately contribute because of their large resource demands, thus competing demands over limited resources. How different reasons lead to significant some are more significant than others.
- increase need for water - trans boundary conflict. Mekong. Significant because they cause a lot of tension over multiple countries. 2000 water tension events so far.
- As use increased - availability decrease as so price increases. This causes tensions globally.
- Less significant cause: Dilemma. Emerging powers now industrialising whereas super powers have already and are focusing on their environment. Tension on global forums for example COP24 about inhibiting the pollution cause by emerging powers. But this is not as significant as the super powers benefit from the production as they are the largest consumers.
12 marks

Regeneration

i)Regeneration will economically benefit the area because they would have more money to pay tax, which can be invested in infrastructure to attract more tourists, included statistics from figure 1
3 or 4 marks

ii)
-Fracking is good because it reduces imports from other countries
Areas can be energy secure
-Can attract investment and help set up businesses - growing economy
-People can disagree because it releases CO2 and this may contribute to global warming
-Promotes economic development for job creation / environmental degradation for other local economies
6 marks

iii)
-The Eden project creates a positive multiplier effect - 750,00 people visit the area
-75% of people were previously unemployed
-Uses 2700 local sources
-Is a post-productivity landscape
-Employs 400 people locally
-Farm diversification
-Rural regeneration of watergate bay - providing socio economic benefits / urban regeneration - wages and educational opportunities through barking riverside
6 marks

iiii) Literally just compared the sources
-Talked about how north Belgium had 5.5 million whilst north Belgium has 0.67 million - more people, more work
-North Belgium is home to TNC headquarters, so they have better transport systems - international airports, whereas southern Belgium does not have this
-South Belgium can have a chance to be successful if they use their coal resources - this can attract investment and the iron and steel used can be used for development
-50% of people speak English in N.Belgium so communication is easier for internal meetings - global language
-However, this is low in S.Belgium because 20% is hard to communicate
20 marks

Diverse places

i. Cannot remember this one but I remember finding it okay
(3 or 4 marks)

ii)
- In some places tensions are caused because of social clustering whereas in others there’s more assimilation of cultures, seen as stakeholders.
- Luton - tensions by political party cause Britain’s First whereas in other place se.g Slough people are working to reduce these tensions by educating etc.
(6 marks)

iii)
- Non-English signs can be used to show characteristics of the ethnicities that live there. E.g Southall
- Services can also show characteristics - E.g Polish shops in the rural area of Boston North Lincolnshire
(6 marks)

iiii)
legit just compared.
- Brusselshas been employment than Charleroi. More employment means more opportunities thus more desirable. However also a high population so increased competition.
- Brussels has lower crime rates this safer for people to live in. However hidden crimes are not recorded in crime rates it could have a black market.
- Environmental quality is good in Charleroi but there’s on the map (coal reserves and oil reserves so must be mining) but in Brussels there’s pollution from vehicles. However more greenery in Brussels than Belgium and also life expectancy higher in brussels than Charleroi.
- Conclusion - other things should be taken into account e.g happiness, satisfaction with life etc
(20 marks)

Health and Human Rights

Started to run out of time by here, so I had to bullet point my points for Health and Human Rights

i)
- plot the bar chart and given the percentage, I got 32.1% (don't think it is right) - time consuming
61.2
45.2%
65.2%
-this was useless
4 marks

ii)
-Education impacts the economy because if 6% have achieved an upper secondary school education, they would be employed in low skilled jobs - might outward migrate - leaving Madagascar "brain drained" - not many good jobs - less money - can't build infrastructure
-Children who achieve 50% in lower primary school - get literacy and math qualifications - however this is low - does not help the country economically develop
- Education impacts the economy because if 6% have achieved an upper secondary school education, they are not trained enough workforce. Education is human capital which attracts TNCs but an educated population would not be much of an incentive.
- Education means better awareness of hygiene thus more like live healthier and better I health. Healthy workforce means less time off work therefor better economy. Not the case tho.
6 marks

iii)
-Communist countries e.g Saudi Arabia an authoritarian regime allows Muslims to kill an apostasy and has the highest capital rates - no human rights protection
-Capitalist countries - support the ECHR and Geneva convention - helps to protect human rights - supports a right to life and freedom of speech
- Dictatorship in Libya - Gaddaffi would harm his own citizens - communist countries have power and dominance
- types of government - go through democratic (more freedom of speech e.g India) and authoritarian (more censorship e.g China)
- Some counties e.g USA invoke human right discussion on global platforms. Whereas counties like Singapore limit human rights, prefer economic growth calling themselves a ‘conservative society’
- Corruption levels. Less in the UK - law less likely to be subverted. In Zimbabwe - more corruption so law more like to be subverted.
8 marks

iiii)
- Haiti was struck by a 7.0 magnitude
-Recieved $38 billion aid
- corruption and bribery
-Exploited by NGOs to do low skilled jobs - can't stand on their own two feet, can't compete with local neighbors
- Aid does not help because of the 2010 earthquake - 2015 Cholera outbreak 720,000 people affected - no healthcare service implemented, as aid was not spent effectively
- Buildings weren't strong enough - liquefaction occurred - death toll increased - could have been reduced if development aid was spent wisely
- In western Africa - 12,000 people died
- Indirect aid - helped as UN set UNMEER to carry out scientific research - a cure was found
- News was spread and NGOs would help
- Development aid - differential record of success.
- Bangladesh (it increased inequality) because of self-seeking donors. Poor lost out. However world Banks project for global education decreased half the number of people out of school form poor backgrounds.
- Haiti - aid dependency, corruption and still a poor country. But Ebola crisis - rich ppl could afford treatment but UN missions and EU 3 billion meant that even poor peoples lives could be saved.
- Gender inequality- UN urged donors for projects. Decreased maternal mortality by 59%. However did not tackle cultures.
- Conclusion - largely does not decrease inequalities. Cuz self seeking donors.
20 marks

Personally, that exam was really long and a lot of people struggled with time.
Don't worry so much about it.

Thanks to contributors:
livvj01
Motivation101
Last edited by TheAlchemistress; 1 year ago
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TheAlchemistress
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Here is the unofficial markscheme
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livvj01
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Local Sourcing Question
- Recycling schemes - differing in education rates etc
- Local sourcing and transitions towns
- Fair trade
Then positives and negatives on the environment

Superpowers conflict
China in Africa - tensions of resources like firewood and oil insecurity
Conflict between Saudi and Iran for resources in Iraq

Fracking
Promotes economic development for job creation / environmental degradation for other local economies
(Original post by Discrepancy)
Here is the unofficial markscheme
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livvj01
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Rural regeneration of watergate bay - providing socio economic benefits / urban regeneration - wages and educational opportunities through barking riverside

Percentage something like 61.2
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angelgrimesmct
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I didn’t see the resource for the regeneration 20 marker so I ended up writing my answer WITHOUT referencing the resource 😭
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by angelgrimesmct)
I didn’t see the resource for the regeneration 20 marker so I ended up writing my answer WITHOUT referencing the resource 😭
Should be fine, many people didn't like the paper. Hopefully, the grade boundaries are low.
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angelgrimesmct
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Thank you! Yeah lots of people found it really hard lol there was a lot of focus on the environment but I guess depends which topics everyone did
(Original post by Discrepancy)
Should be fine, many people didn't like the paper. Hopefully, the grade boundaries are low.
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by angelgrimesmct)
Thank you! Yeah lots of people found it really hard lol there was a lot of focus on the environment but I guess depends which topics everyone did
I know, it was annoying. True, but the paper was genuinely really long.
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angelgrimesmct
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(Original post by Discrepancy)
I know, it was annoying. True, but the paper was genuinely really long.
Yep it was really long!
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by angelgrimesmct)
Yep it was really long!
I literally had 35 minutes to do HHRI, after my toilet break
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angelgrimesmct
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(Original post by Discrepancy)
I literally had 35 minutes to do HHRI, after my toilet break
Oh no! Yeah I was writing down to the last second
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by angelgrimesmct)
Oh no! Yeah I was writing down to the last second
Everyone ran out of time though, not sure why.
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TheAlchemistress
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Wasn't meant to draw 4 separate bar charts, it's all on one bar chart ffs.
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angelgrimesmct
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I think the exam is just very tight for timing
(Original post by Discrepancy)
Everyone ran out of time though, not sure why.
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by angelgrimesmct)
I think the exam is just very tight for timing
Maybe
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Medic.213
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(Original post by Discrepancy)
Wasn't meant to draw 4 separate bar charts, it's all on one bar chart ffs.
yeah I drew it wrong so annoying, also got 45.2% for calculation which is pretty wrong lol
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by Medic.213)
yeah I drew it wrong so annoying, also got 45.2% for calculation which is pretty wrong lol
It's so stupid to include these questions. I know they aren't hard, but it makes us lose marks ffs.
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kinghulio
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Noo say swear.. I wasted like 4 mins on that which I could've used to finish my 8 marker properly ffs
(Original post by Discrepancy)
Wasn't meant to draw 4 separate bar charts, it's all on one bar chart ffs.
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TheAlchemistress
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(Original post by kinghulio)
Noo say swear.. I wasted like 4 mins on that which I could've used to finish my 8 marker properly ffs
Swear
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