Any predictions for psychology paper 2 aqa? Watch

Charlottlexxoox
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#1
???
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RavenLegend
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56BXGUlxSSs
Most of her paper 1 predictions were in the paper.
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diwwest
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Here's what I've found (could be wrong)
APPROACHES:
- WUNDT AND PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
introspection, lab experiments, how wundt added scientific credibility to psychology (control for reporting introspections, standardised procedures, precise measurement)
- COGNITIVE APPROACH
assumptions (schemas = frameworks of knowledge based on past experience of how we view world, helps to process info quickly), computer analogy (information processing model), use of models, emergence of cognitive neuroscience, mental processes studied through inference
issues and debates (machine reductionist, soft determinism, nomothetic, cognitive behavioural therapy, interactionist)
- HUMANISTIC APPROACH
- SLT
- COMPARING APPROACHES
reductionist vs holistic, idiographic vs nomothetic, free will vs determinism, nature vs nurture, applications to real life/economy are really good to put here

BIOPSYCHOLOGY
- LOCALISATION OF FUNCTION
different areas of the brain (e.g. frontal lobe = motor area)
- PLASTICITY AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
- CIRCADIAN, ULTRADIAN AND INFRADIAN RHYTHMS
circadian = sleep-wake cycle (Siffre, night shift) ultradian = sleep-stages (Dement and Kleitman, lack eco. val) infradian = menstrual cycle (Stern and McClintock, evolutionary advantage)
- SPLIT BRAIN RESEARCH
Sperry (visual and motor tests)


RESEARCH METHODS:
- SIGN TEST
work out difference between 2 conditions for each participant and have + or - depending on whether it was an increase or decrease between them, total number of less frequent sign is S value (calculate value), compare to critical value from table of values
- DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT
aim, hypothesis (null and alternative), materials needed (including consent form and debrief), procedure (not sure if needed but maybe how you analyse your findings?)
- FEATURES OF A SCIENCE
arguments for and against psychology being a science (falsifiable, observable, objective, replicable) maybe paradigm?
- HYPOTHESIS WRITING
directional or non-directional (if previous research), fully operationalised
- SECTIONS OF SCIENTIFIC REPORT
- WHETHER RESULTS ARE SIGNIFICANT
comparing calculated value to table of critical values
- JUSTIFYING USE OF SATS TEST
nominal, ordinal or interval, difference or correlation, unrelated or related measures
-TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 ERRORS
type 1 - p value too lenient, type 2 - p value too strict
- WAYS OF IMPROVING RELIABILITY
consistent procedure (standardised), operationalising variables fully, training observers and objectively operationalising categories for behaviour, lab experiments
closed questions, structured interview
- EVALUATION OF CASE STUDIES
idiographic, rich detail (qualitative) about individual or small group, used as a basis for a hypothesis to be formed upon, BUT subject to bias (researcher may form own opinions), often a rare or unique individual so cannot generalise to general population
- ETHICAL ISSUES
informed consent, deception, protection of participants, confidentiality, right to withdraw
- PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMY
development of therapies can encourage people back into work/less strain on NHS (but big pharma companies gain from prescription of drug therapies which are less long term - could lead to not actually helping patients)
- PEER REVIEW
for research to become validated it must go through peer review, acts as quality control for research (assessed for flaws by experts in field) - increases Psychology's credibility as a science BUT subject to bias, doesn't always detect fraudulent research, file drawer phenomenon
- MATHS SKILLS
percentages and graphs
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diwwest
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#4
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#4
Here's what I've found (could be wrong)
APPROACHES:
- WUNDT AND PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
introspection, lab experiments, how wundt added scientific credibility to psychology (control for reporting introspections, standardised procedures, precise measurement)
- COGNITIVE APPROACH
assumptions (schemas = frameworks of knowledge based on past experience of how we view world, helps to process info quickly), computer analogy (information processing model), use of models, emergence of cognitive neuroscience, mental processes studied through inference
issues and debates (machine reductionist, soft determinism, nomothetic, cognitive behavioural therapy, interactionist)
- HUMANISTIC APPROACH
- SLT
- COMPARING APPROACHES
reductionist vs holistic, idiographic vs nomothetic, free will vs determinism, nature vs nurture, applications to real life/economy are really good to put here

BIOPSYCHOLOGY
- LOCALISATION OF FUNCTION
different areas of the brain (e.g. frontal lobe = motor area)
- PLASTICITY AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
- CIRCADIAN, ULTRADIAN AND INFRADIAN RHYTHMS
circadian = sleep-wake cycle (Siffre, night shift) ultradian = sleep-stages (Dement and Kleitman, lack eco. val) infradian = menstrual cycle (Stern and McClintock, evolutionary advantage)
- SPLIT BRAIN RESEARCH
Sperry (visual and motor tests)


RESEARCH METHODS:
- SIGN TEST
work out difference between 2 conditions for each participant and have + or - depending on whether it was an increase or decrease between them, total number of less frequent sign is S value (calculate value), compare to critical value from table of values
- DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT
aim, hypothesis (null and alternative), materials needed (including consent form and debrief), procedure (not sure if needed but maybe how you analyse your findings?)
- FEATURES OF A SCIENCE
arguments for and against psychology being a science (falsifiable, observable, objective, replicable) maybe paradigm?
- HYPOTHESIS WRITING
directional or non-directional (if previous research), fully operationalised
- SECTIONS OF SCIENTIFIC REPORT
- WHETHER RESULTS ARE SIGNIFICANT
comparing calculated value to table of critical values
- JUSTIFYING USE OF SATS TEST
nominal, ordinal or interval, difference or correlation, unrelated or related measures
-TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 ERRORS
type 1 - p value too lenient, type 2 - p value too strict
- WAYS OF IMPROVING RELIABILITY
consistent procedure (standardised), operationalising variables fully, training observers and objectively operationalising categories for behaviour, lab experiments
closed questions, structured interview
- EVALUATION OF CASE STUDIES
idiographic, rich detail (qualitative) about individual or small group, used as a basis for a hypothesis to be formed upon, BUT subject to bias (researcher may form own opinions), often a rare or unique individual so cannot generalise to general population
- ETHICAL ISSUES
informed consent, deception, protection of participants, confidentiality, right to withdraw
- PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMY
development of therapies can encourage people back into work/less strain on NHS (but big pharma companies gain from prescription of drug therapies which are less long term - could lead to not actually helping patients)
- PEER REVIEW
for research to become validated it must go through peer review, acts as quality control for research (assessed for flaws by experts in field) - increases Psychology's credibility as a science BUT subject to bias, doesn't always detect fraudulent research, file drawer phenomenon
- MATHS SKILLS
percentages and graphs
0
reply
Charlottlexxoox
Badges: 9
#5
Report Thread starter 1 month ago
#5
Bloody hell im sooo nervous
(Original post by diwwest)
Here's what I've found (could be wrong)
APPROACHES:
- WUNDT AND PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
introspection, lab experiments, how wundt added scientific credibility to psychology (control for reporting introspections, standardised procedures, precise measurement)
- COGNITIVE APPROACH
assumptions (schemas = frameworks of knowledge based on past experience of how we view world, helps to process info quickly), computer analogy (information processing model), use of models, emergence of cognitive neuroscience, mental processes studied through inference
issues and debates (machine reductionist, soft determinism, nomothetic, cognitive behavioural therapy, interactionist)
- HUMANISTIC APPROACH
- SLT
- COMPARING APPROACHES
reductionist vs holistic, idiographic vs nomothetic, free will vs determinism, nature vs nurture, applications to real life/economy are really good to put here

BIOPSYCHOLOGY
- LOCALISATION OF FUNCTION
different areas of the brain (e.g. frontal lobe = motor area)
- PLASTICITY AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
- CIRCADIAN, ULTRADIAN AND INFRADIAN RHYTHMS
circadian = sleep-wake cycle (Siffre, night shift) ultradian = sleep-stages (Dement and Kleitman, lack eco. val) infradian = menstrual cycle (Stern and McClintock, evolutionary advantage)
- SPLIT BRAIN RESEARCH
Sperry (visual and motor tests)


RESEARCH METHODS:
- SIGN TEST
work out difference between 2 conditions for each participant and have + or - depending on whether it was an increase or decrease between them, total number of less frequent sign is S value (calculate value), compare to critical value from table of values
- DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT
aim, hypothesis (null and alternative), materials needed (including consent form and debrief), procedure (not sure if needed but maybe how you analyse your findings?)
- FEATURES OF A SCIENCE
arguments for and against psychology being a science (falsifiable, observable, objective, replicable) maybe paradigm?
- HYPOTHESIS WRITING
directional or non-directional (if previous research), fully operationalised
- SECTIONS OF SCIENTIFIC REPORT
- WHETHER RESULTS ARE SIGNIFICANT
comparing calculated value to table of critical values
- JUSTIFYING USE OF SATS TEST
nominal, ordinal or interval, difference or correlation, unrelated or related measures
-TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 ERRORS
type 1 - p value too lenient, type 2 - p value too strict
- WAYS OF IMPROVING RELIABILITY
consistent procedure (standardised), operationalising variables fully, training observers and objectively operationalising categories for behaviour, lab experiments
closed questions, structured interview
- EVALUATION OF CASE STUDIES
idiographic, rich detail (qualitative) about individual or small group, used as a basis for a hypothesis to be formed upon, BUT subject to bias (researcher may form own opinions), often a rare or unique individual so cannot generalise to general population
- ETHICAL ISSUES
informed consent, deception, protection of participants, confidentiality, right to withdraw
- PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMY
development of therapies can encourage people back into work/less strain on NHS (but big pharma companies gain from prescription of drug therapies which are less long term - could lead to not actually helping patients)
- PEER REVIEW
for research to become validated it must go through peer review, acts as quality control for research (assessed for flaws by experts in field) - increases Psychology's credibility as a science BUT subject to bias, doesn't always detect fraudulent research, file drawer phenomenon
- MATHS SKILLS
percentages and graphs
0
reply
Charlottlexxoox
Badges: 9
#6
Report Thread starter 1 month ago
#6
Can u just quickly remind me how to do sign test again...plz
(Original post by diwwest)
Here's what I've found (could be wrong)
APPROACHES:
- WUNDT AND PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
introspection, lab experiments, how wundt added scientific credibility to psychology (control for reporting introspections, standardised procedures, precise measurement)
- COGNITIVE APPROACH
assumptions (schemas = frameworks of knowledge based on past experience of how we view world, helps to process info quickly), computer analogy (information processing model), use of models, emergence of cognitive neuroscience, mental processes studied through inference
issues and debates (machine reductionist, soft determinism, nomothetic, cognitive behavioural therapy, interactionist)
- HUMANISTIC APPROACH
- SLT
- COMPARING APPROACHES
reductionist vs holistic, idiographic vs nomothetic, free will vs determinism, nature vs nurture, applications to real life/economy are really good to put here

BIOPSYCHOLOGY
- LOCALISATION OF FUNCTION
different areas of the brain (e.g. frontal lobe = motor area)
- PLASTICITY AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
- CIRCADIAN, ULTRADIAN AND INFRADIAN RHYTHMS
circadian = sleep-wake cycle (Siffre, night shift) ultradian = sleep-stages (Dement and Kleitman, lack eco. val) infradian = menstrual cycle (Stern and McClintock, evolutionary advantage)
- SPLIT BRAIN RESEARCH
Sperry (visual and motor tests)


RESEARCH METHODS:
- SIGN TEST
work out difference between 2 conditions for each participant and have + or - depending on whether it was an increase or decrease between them, total number of less frequent sign is S value (calculate value), compare to critical value from table of values
- DESIGNING AN EXPERIMENT
aim, hypothesis (null and alternative), materials needed (including consent form and debrief), procedure (not sure if needed but maybe how you analyse your findings?)
- FEATURES OF A SCIENCE
arguments for and against psychology being a science (falsifiable, observable, objective, replicable) maybe paradigm?
- HYPOTHESIS WRITING
directional or non-directional (if previous research), fully operationalised
- SECTIONS OF SCIENTIFIC REPORT
- WHETHER RESULTS ARE SIGNIFICANT
comparing calculated value to table of critical values
- JUSTIFYING USE OF SATS TEST
nominal, ordinal or interval, difference or correlation, unrelated or related measures
-TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 ERRORS
type 1 - p value too lenient, type 2 - p value too strict
- WAYS OF IMPROVING RELIABILITY
consistent procedure (standardised), operationalising variables fully, training observers and objectively operationalising categories for behaviour, lab experiments
closed questions, structured interview
- EVALUATION OF CASE STUDIES
idiographic, rich detail (qualitative) about individual or small group, used as a basis for a hypothesis to be formed upon, BUT subject to bias (researcher may form own opinions), often a rare or unique individual so cannot generalise to general population
- ETHICAL ISSUES
informed consent, deception, protection of participants, confidentiality, right to withdraw
- PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMY
development of therapies can encourage people back into work/less strain on NHS (but big pharma companies gain from prescription of drug therapies which are less long term - could lead to not actually helping patients)
- PEER REVIEW
for research to become validated it must go through peer review, acts as quality control for research (assessed for flaws by experts in field) - increases Psychology's credibility as a science BUT subject to bias, doesn't always detect fraudulent research, file drawer phenomenon
- MATHS SKILLS
percentages and graphs
0
reply
diwwest
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#7
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#7
me too im cramming so hard right now
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diwwest
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#8
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#8
sign test is test of DIFFERENCE with REPEATED MEASURES (same participants do all conditions) and ORDINAL LEVEL DATA (can be ranked)
STEP 1. STATE THE HYPOTHESIS
STEP 2. RECORD DATA
- work out difference between each participants results on each condition (if the results increase then this is a +, if it is a decrease then it is a -)
STEP 3. CALCULATED VALUE
the S value is the calculated value, this is the total number of the less frequent sign (e.g. if you had 10 participants and 4 had an increase in results, 6 had a decrease, the S value would be 4)
STEP 4. CRITICAL VALUE
using a table of critical values (n= number of participants and p value is usually 0.05 but it depends on whether the test is 1-tailed or 2 tailed)
STEP 4. COMPARE VALUES
if the calculated value is less than or equal to the critical value then the result is significant (meaning that there is a less than 5% chance that the results obtained are due to chance) THEREFORE we can accept the alternative hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis

(Original post by Charlottlexxoox)
Can u just quickly remind me how to do sign test again...plz
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reply
Charlottlexxoox
Badges: 9
#9
Report Thread starter 1 month ago
#9
Your a star thankssss 🤗🤗🤗🤗
(Original post by diwwest)
sign test is test of DIFFERENCE with REPEATED MEASURES (same participants do all conditions) and ORDINAL LEVEL DATA (can be ranked)
STEP 1. STATE THE HYPOTHESIS
STEP 2. RECORD DATA
- work out difference between each participants results on each condition (if the results increase then this is a +, if it is a decrease then it is a -)
STEP 3. CALCULATED VALUE
the S value is the calculated value, this is the total number of the less frequent sign (e.g. if you had 10 participants and 4 had an increase in results, 6 had a decrease, the S value would be 4)
STEP 4. CRITICAL VALUE
using a table of critical values (n= number of participants and p value is usually 0.05 but it depends on whether the test is 1-tailed or 2 tailed)
STEP 4. COMPARE VALUES
if the calculated value is less than or equal to the critical value then the result is significant (meaning that there is a less than 5% chance that the results obtained are due to chance) THEREFORE we can accept the alternative hypothesis and reject the null hypothesis
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