Kinyonga
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Share any tips you have for the essay in paper 3! Any marked examples you have would be cool to see as well.
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Jademorgan1
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I have an example my teacher is an examiner Hope this helpsName:  image.jpg
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(Original post by Kinyonga)
Share any tips you have for the essay in paper 3! Any marked examples you have would be cool to see as well.
Basically just go into as much depth as possible and link it back to the question
The improvement for this essay is to try to use something outside the spec
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Kinyonga
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(Original post by Jademorgan1)
I have an example my teacher is an examiner Hope this helpsName:  image.jpg
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Size:  182.8 KBName:  image.jpg
Views: 104
Size:  157.4 KB

Basically just go into as much depth as possible and link it back to the question
The improvement for this essay is to try to use something outside the spec
Thanks, that's really helpful!
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Kinyonga
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Would anybody be free to give me a bit of feedback on this?

There are many different relationships and interactions between organisms.
Succession begins when a pioneer species colonises a barren habitat, such as lichen starting to grow on the rocks from a lava flow. As the lichen grows, it will make the area more favourable to the growth of other, less hardy, species, such as mosses, small insects, and grasses. As these plants and animals grow and die, being decomposed by saprobionts and detritivores, the depth of the soil increases, and allows further organisms to move in. Shrubs, bushes, and small trees will come, and will out-compete the original pioneering species. As the trees grow and develop into a large forest, the smaller shade-intolerant plants will die out, leaving a rich leaf-litter and humus for worms, nematodes, slugs, etc which other animals can feed on. The ecosystem will eventually reach a stable state, its climax community.
Interspecific relationships will form, such as the symbiosis between the ant and the aphid; the former “farms” the aphids for their honeydew, and in return protects them against predators such as ladybirds. Another is the mutualism between trees and fungi – mycorrhizae. The hyphae of the fungi being much smaller than the roots of the trees, the mycelium can spread much further and can penetrate the soil more efficiently. This allow the fungi to draw up nutrients and water, which it allows the plant to take through its roots in exchange for carbon-containing molecules such as sugars and amino acids.
Competition is also rife, both between different species and intraspecifically. Parasites are extremely ubiquitous, coming in the form of blood-sucking ticks or the tapeworm which tunnels into the digestive tract of larger creatures. Plants compete for nutrients and water, with some smaller plants growing on larger ones in order to reach the sunlight in the canopy (orchids, for example). There is also the important interaction which is that between predator and prey, one hunting to survive and the other needing at all costs to avoid being caught. Competition between members of the same species is especially fierce, as individuals which do not come out top will not survive. Many animals have strict territories for this reason, with any intruders being chased off or killed. Fights occur over mates, sometimes over one individual (most cats) or for dominance of a harem (red deer). Courting is very important, as it maximises reproductive success and the passing on of genes by signalling that an individual is sexually mature and available, and attracts members of the opposite sex. All this competition and the limited resources which keeps populations from growing exponentially.
Humans have had a particular relationship with the various organisms they use in farming and agriculture. Intensive farming of animals minimises energy loss through respiration by restricting the space they have to move around in, keeping them at an optimal temperature, feeding them as much high-nutrient food as possible, and protecting them from predators and competition. Crops are grown in large fields of monocultures, and pesticides and fertilisers are used to maximise the harvest. There are ethical arguments against such battery farming of animals, as it causes a lot of suffering to the animals and takes any semblance of a decent life away from them. And extensive use of herbicides, fungicides and insecticides on crops reduces biodiversity, as does the removal of hedges to make fields bigger. The nutrients found in fertilisers (especially nitrogen and phosphorous, as they are limiting factors to many plants’ growth) can enter bodies of water due to leaching, and cause eutrophication which leads to dead zones. Growing monocultures depletes the soil of the nutrients that species particularly uses, and due to the export of the crops nothing is put back into the earth. Agroforestry is a more productive form of farming, as the trees use their deep taproots to draw up water and nutrients from low in the soil, from which the crops can benefit.
Humans also breed animals as pets, as companions, for show and for sports, crossing individuals with specific favourable traits that they want the offspring to have. Too much inbreeding, however, can result in a loss of hybrid vigour, and can cause deleterious recessive alleles to be expressed. Outbreeding will help make sure the animals remain healthy.
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GCSEStudent903
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Hi, i've had a read and made some notes. I got 25/25 in my actual essay (I did my A Levels last year) so I have a good idea of what makes a good essay
(Original post by Kinyonga)
Succession begins when a pioneer species colonises a barren habitat, such as lichen starting to grow on the rocks from a lava flow. As the lichen grows, it will make the area more favourable HOW DOES IT DO THIS? to the growth of other, less hardy, species, such as mosses, small insects, and grasses. As these plants and animals grow and die, being decomposed by saprobionts and detritivores, the depth of the soil increases, and allows further organisms to move in. MOVE IN? USE MORE A LEVEL TERMINOLOGY - COLONISE, HOSPITABLE ETC. Shrubs, bushes, and small trees will come, and will out-compete the original pioneering species. As the trees grow and develop into a large forest, the smaller shade-intolerant plants will die out, leaving a rich leaf-litter and humus for worms, nematodes, slugs, etc which other animals can feed on. The ecosystem will eventually reach a stable state, its climax community.

YOU NEED TO USE BE CLEARER WITH LINKS BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS - from "climax community" to "interspecific relationships" be clear on a link e.g. "forming a climax community. Within this community, relationships form"

Interspecific relationships will form, such as the symbiosis between the ant and the aphid; the former “farms” the aphids for their honeydew, and in return protects them against predators such as ladybirds. Another is the mutualism between trees and fungi – mycorrhizae. The hyphae of the fungi being much smaller than the roots of the trees, the mycelium can spread much further and can penetrate the soil more efficiently. This allow the fungi to draw up nutrients NAME A NUTRIENT AND DESCRIBE SAPROBIOTIC NUTRITION - THIS NEEDS CONTENT BASED A LEVEL KNOWLEDGE AND READS MORE LIKE A SPRINGWATCH DOCUMENTARY and water, which it allows the plant to take through its roots in exchange for carbon-containing molecules such as sugars and amino acids. SO? WHAT BENEFIT DOES THIS HAVE TO PLANTS? E.G. SUGAR NEEDED AS RESPIRATORY SUBSTRATE TO PRODUCE ATP, THUS, THEIR RELATIONSHIP IS IMPORTANT ETC.


Competition is also rife, both between different species and intraspecifically. Parasites are extremely ubiquitous, coming in the form of blood-sucking ticks or the tapeworm which tunnels into the digestive tract of larger creatures. Plants compete for nutrients and water, with some smaller plants growing on larger ones in order to reach the sunlight in the canopy (orchids, for example). There is also the important interaction which is that between predator and prey, one hunting to survive and the other needing at all costs to avoid being caught. Competition between members of the same species is especially fierce, as individuals which do not come out top will not survive. Many animals have strict territories for this reason, with any intruders being chased off or killed. YOU'RE NOT USING VITAL A LEVEL TERMINOLOGY E.G. NATURAL SELECTION Fights occur over mates, sometimes over one individual (most cats) or for dominance of a harem (red deer). Courting is very important, as it maximises reproductive success and the passing on of genes ---- this is a good example of what you need to do more, applying the a level content to the essay, saying that reproductive success passes genes/alleles on to offspring
by signalling that an individual is sexually mature and available, and attracts members of the opposite sex. All this competition and the limited resources which keeps populations from growing exponentially SO? WHY IS THIS BAD?

Humans have had a particular relationship with the various organisms they use in farming and agriculture. Intensive farming of animals minimises energy loss through respiration by restricting the space they have to move around in, keeping them at an optimal temperature, feeding them as much high-nutrient food as possible, and protecting them from predators and competition. Crops are grown in large fields of monocultures, and pesticides and fertilisers are used to maximise the harvest. There are ethical arguments against such battery farming of animals, as it causes a lot of suffering to the animals and takes any semblance of a decent life away from them. And extensive use of herbicides, fungicides and insecticides on crops reduces biodiversity, as does the removal of hedges to make fields bigger. The nutrients found in fertilisers (especially nitrogen and phosphorous, as they are limiting factors to many plants’ growth) can enter bodies of water due to leaching, and cause eutrophication which leads to dead zones. ------ WHAT RELEVANCE DOES THIS HAVE TO A RELATIONSHIP? THESE ARE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMAN ACTIVITY ETC ETC BUT SEEMS A BIT IRRELEVANT TO THE CRUX OF THE ESSAY ON DISCUSSING INTERACTIONS

Growing monocultures depletes the soil of the nutrients that species particularly uses, and due to the export of the crops nothing is put back into the earth. Agroforestry is a more productive form of farming, as the trees use their deep taproots to draw up water and nutrients from low in the soil, from which the crops can benefit.
Humans also breed animals as pets, as companions, for show and for sports, crossing individuals with specific favourable traits that they want the offspring to have. Too much inbreeding, however, can result in a loss of hybrid vigour, and can cause deleterious recessive alleles to be expressed. -- this is a good example of using your a level knowledge here. Outbreeding will help make sure the animals remain healthy.
This was an interesting read - you have a good use of english, however, in places you need to apply your a level content more and focus on giving the examiner detail on the content you have learnt rather than your verbosity.

Hope this helps and please don't take anything I say as of being too harsh!!
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Jademorgan1
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Hi that score is fantastic how did you go about including extra biology beyond the spec?
(Original post by GCSEStudent903)
Hi, i've had a read and made some notes. I got 25/25 in my actual essay (I did my A Levels last year) so I have a good idea of what makes a good essay


This was an interesting read - you have a good use of english, however, in places you need to apply your a level content more and focus on giving the examiner detail on the content you have learnt rather than your verbosity.

Hope this helps and please don't take anything I say as of being too harsh!!
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GCSEStudent903
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(Original post by Jademorgan1)
Hi that score is fantastic how did you go about including extra biology beyond the spec?
Hey,

I read a lot of new scientist / biology review magazines so I knew a lot of out-of-spec stuff (and plus i've read a lot of first year medicine lol so included some of that in).

I also learnt the urea cycle (in case there was an essay on cycles). Another good idea is to use the stuff they give in the textbooks etc.
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So did u have a lot of extra curriculum stuff? , I have read a through medicine things just from applying/ epq but can’t remember much but don’t have much more knowledge I was trying to remember a few extra things for some of the topics but I’m not sure how much is needed to get the top band?
(Original post by GCSEStudent903)
Hey,

I read a lot of new scientist / biology review magazines so I knew a lot of out-of-spec stuff (and plus i've read a lot of first year medicine lol so included some of that in).

I also learnt the urea cycle (in case there was an essay on cycles). Another good idea is to use the stuff they give in the textbooks etc.
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GCSEStudent903
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I had a good few paragraphs of off the spec information.

If you want, I can email you a copy of my essay from my actual paper (as my Paper 3 was requested back from my college as i got close to full marks on it). If you DM your email I can send this over this evening and you can have a read? (good luck deciphering my handwriting through lol)


(Original post by Jademorgan1)
So did u have a lot of extra curriculum stuff? , I have read a through medicine things just from applying/ epq but can’t remember much but don’t have much more knowledge I was trying to remember a few extra things for some of the topics but I’m not sure how much is needed to get the top band?
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Kinyonga
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(Original post by GCSEStudent903)
This was an interesting read - you have a good use of english, however, in places you need to apply your a level content more and focus on giving the examiner detail on the content you have learnt rather than your verbosity.

Hope this helps and please don't take anything I say as of being too harsh!!
Wow, thank you so much, that is really helpful! I'm doing this A-level from home so haven't really had anyone to discuss these things with.
Definitely a good point re what I was saying about the ethics, I was just trying to think of more stuff I could write and forgot to link it back to the question. I guess that applies to the whole thing, really; I was aiming more for quantity rather than quality and in-depth knowledge. I'll have a go at another essay now

By the way, are you at uni this year? What are you studying if so?
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(Original post by Kinyonga)
Wow, thank you so much, that is really helpful! I'm doing this A-level from home so haven't really had anyone to discuss these things with.
Definitely a good point re what I was saying about the ethics, I was just trying to think of more stuff I could write and forgot to link it back to the question. I guess that applies to the whole thing, really; I was aiming more for quantity rather than quality and in-depth knowledge. I'll have a go at another essay now

By the way, are you at uni this year? What are you studying if so?
No worries - glad it helped!
I'm starting uni in Sept and studying Medicine I'm currently on a gap year
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Kinyonga
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(Original post by GCSEStudent903)
No worries - glad it helped!
I'm starting uni in Sept and studying Medicine I'm currently on a gap year
Ah, me too, but I'll be studying ecology and conservation
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GCSEStudent903
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(Original post by Kinyonga)
Ah, me too, but I'll be studying ecology and conservation
Ah wonderful! No wonder your essay was very ecology heavy, you have a great understanding of it!
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Kinyonga
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(Original post by GCSEStudent903)
Ah wonderful! No wonder your essay was very ecology heavy, you have a great understanding of it!
Haha thanks I really need to practice writing a more cell-based essay though, that's definitely my weak point.
Where will you be going to uni?
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GCSEStudent903
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Yeah it's good to have a good breath of essay practice, the more you do the better.

I'll be going to Newcastle where will you be heading?
(Original post by Kinyonga)
Haha thanks I really need to practice writing a more cell-based essay though, that's definitely my weak point.
Where will you be going to uni?
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Kinyonga
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I'll be going to Newcastle where will you be heading?
Hopefully Exeter's lovely Cornwall campus otherwise I amazingly received an offer from Sussex which was only conditional on my getting a 5 in the maths GCSE I sat in January, so that's a nice back-up plan - especially as until I visited Penryn I thought I'd put Sussex as firm.
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(Original post by GCSEStudent903)
I had a good few paragraphs of off the spec information.

If you want, I can email you a copy of my essay from my actual paper (as my Paper 3 was requested back from my college as i got close to full marks on it). If you DM your email I can send this over this evening and you can have a read? (good luck deciphering my handwriting through lol)
Hi, would you be able to email it to me too?
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Hi, if you can DM your email I can send it
(Original post by GoldenShade)
Hi, would you be able to email it to me too?
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Kinyonga
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GCSEStudent903 Hey, I wonder if, if you have time, you could glance over this? Just been going through a couple of essay titles to see which topics I'd write about. Do these sound right?

The importance of the specific shapes of molecules in organisms.
Proteins: tertiary structure etc
Specificity of enzymes
DNA: for polymerase, restriction endonuclease… RNA different shape
Antigens, antibodies
Effect of mutations

The importance of nitrogen-containing substances in biological systems.
DNA – RNA – genetic material – genetic fingerprinting – VNTRs
Amino acids – proteins – enzymes – transport
Nitrogen cycle
Xylem

The importance of diffusion in organisms.
Plain diffusion (across membrane or through channel proteins)
Facilitated diffusion (channel or carrier proteins) thanks to ATP
Osmosis – hyper and hypotonicity
Blood water control
Gas exchange: mammals, fish, insects, single-celled organisms
Water in mass transport and mass flow hypothesis of plants
Absorption into epithelial cells from intestine

The control of processes in cells and the importance of these controls.
Photosynthesis – light energy to make glucose
Glucose used in cellular respiration to make ATP
ATP used in transport
Gas exchange
DNA replication
Protein synthesis
Meiosis, mitosis

The importance of ions in biology.
Na+ in digestion (with glucose and amino acid symporters)
Na+ and Ca+ in synaptic transmission and NMJs
Phosphorous cycle??
Phosphate in DNA
Electrophoresis

The importance of responses to changes in the internal and external environment of an organism.
Reflexes, taxes, kineses, tropisms
Homeostasis – feedback – control of heart rate – glucose control – water control – thermoregulation (complex mix of body temperature, physiological responses and behaviour)
Adaptations from natural selection which have made organisms able to withstand dry weather and heat (plant guard cells, xerophytes, insect spiracles, amphibians hiding in the mud – water-holding frog)

The importance to humans of the control of growth, reproduction and development of organisms, including themselves.

Breeding
Agriculture and effect on biodiversity
Plagioclimax communities
Stabilising selection in birth weights
Mitosis and meiosis, and mutations and cancers
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How wouldn't you! The use of ATP in the Na+/K+ pump is very very important to allow for action potentials to be conducted, allowing for us to respond to stimuli and facilitate synaptic transmission for muscle contraction, secretion from glands, histamines etc etc
(Original post by HaliX123)
I am planning an essay on the importance of ATP in living organisms, and I am going to write about the sodium potassium pump maintaining resting potential, but how would you link this to the importance of ???
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